chapter 7 test review

chapter 7 test review - Exploring Environmental Issues...

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Exploring Environmental Issues 1301, Dr. Marcum Test 2 review sheet CHAPTER 7 – soil and agriculture Compare traditional with industrialized agriculture. - Traditional agriculture relied on human and animal muscle power, hand tools, and simple machines. - Industrialized agriculture introduced large-scale mechanization and fossil fuel combustion, enabling farmers to replace horses an oxen with faster and more powerful means of working with crops and livestock. How do population and consumption affect soil? - They can decrease its productivity and overall “health” over time by various means (see below). Population increases often mean more intensive soil usage. o Overgrazing o Excessive fertilizer use o Excessive pesticide use o Excessive irrigation o Pollution from various sources (including industrial waste) o Deforestation o Salinization o Desertification (which is influenced by several factors). What is the relationship between poverty and food? - Many of those in poverty suffer from undernourishment or malnourishment. Describe how soil is formed through the various types of weathering - See figure 7.2 (page 144). - From top to bottom (based on idealized model): o O: litter layer. Mostly organic matter deposited by organisms. o A: topsoil. Some organic matter mixed with inorganic components o E: loss of some minerals and organic matter through leaching o B: subsoil, where leached material accumulates. o C: largely consists of weathered parent material slightly altered or unaltered. o R: pure parent material o Which soil layer is most fertile? - the A horizon (topsoil) Why is soil erosion such a global problem? - Humans have accelerated the rate of soil erosion, and causes of soil erosion from human activity are evident worldwide. Also see the list above for “How do population and consumption affect soil?” Why is desertification such a global problem? What was the Dust Bowl?
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- Desertification is a loss of more than 10% productivity due to erosion, soil compaction, forest removal, overgrazing, drought, salinization, climate change,
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This note was uploaded on 05/05/2008 for the course ENV 1301 taught by Professor Larrylehr during the Spring '07 term at Baylor.

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chapter 7 test review - Exploring Environmental Issues...

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