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Chapter6_Memory_StudentNotes - Memory Chapter 6 Memory and...

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Memory Chapter 6 Memory and Its Processes 0. Memory - an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters it as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage. 1. Processes of Memory: 0. Encoding - sensory information is information converted into a form that is usable in the brain’s storage systems. 1. Storage - holding onto information for some period of time. 2. Retrieval - getting information that is in storage into a form that can be used. Models of Memory 0. Information-processing model - model of memory that assumes the processing of information for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory in a series of three stages. Sensory Memory 2. Sensory memory - the very first stage of memory, the point at which information enters the nervous system through the sensory systems. 1. Iconic memory - visual sensory memory, lasting only a fraction of a second. 3. Capacity – everything that can be seen at one time. 4. Duration - information that has just entered iconic memory will be pushed out very quickly by new information, a process called masking. Sensory Memory 2. Echoic memory - the brief memory of something a person has just heard. 5. Capacity - limited to what can be heard at any one moment and is smaller than the capacity of iconic memory 6. Duration – lasts longer that iconic — about 2 to 4 seconds Short-Term Memory
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3. Short-term memory (STM) (working memory) - the memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used. 7. Selective attention – the ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input. Short-Term Memory 4. Digit-span test – memory test in which a series of numbers is read to subjects in the experiment who are then asked to recall the numbers in order. 8. Conclusions are that the capacity of STM is about seven items or pieces of information, plus or minus two items, or from five to nine bits of information. 0. “magical number” = 7 5. Chunking – bits of information are combined into meaningful units, or chunks, so that more information can be held in STM.
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