Psy 105- lecture 2

Psy 105- lecture 2 - Methods Lecture 2- January 10, 2008...

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Unformatted text preview: Methods Lecture 2- January 10, 2008 Why Study Development? Its a subset of the study of causality All systems develop; to understand how something works, it often helps to understand how it was put together. Overview of Research Methods Design issues Quantitative vs. qualitative Correlational vs. experimental Methodologies Case studies Structured interviews, tasks Coss-sectional vs. Longitudinal Reliability and validity Significance Qualitative vs. Quantitative Data Qualitative (Descriptive) Focus on many variables Focus on interpretation of the situation as a whole Most useful for generation of theories Quantitative (Experimental and Correlational) Focus on few predictor variables Focus on operationalization clear definition of how variables are measured Most useful for testing theories Contexts for data gathering Observation Natural Unobtrusive, no interference Structured Experimenter creates a given situation Natural observation Advantages Non laboratory setting Valid ecological context May see behaviors that are common only with specific environmental triggers External (Ecological) Validity External Validity High if effects from a study are generalizable to world in general Not confined to conditions of testing Example Studying rats in a bright room low external validity Studying kids in a playground high external validity Contexts for data gathering Interviews (of children, parents, others) Structured interviews Same questions all the time Clinical interviews Follow-up questions depend on the answers given Excerpt from clinical interview E: Do you know what a lie is? C: Its when you say what isnt true E: Is 2+2=5 a lie? C: Yes its a lie E: Why? C: Because it isnt right. E: Did the boy who said 2+2=5 know it wasnt right or did he make a mistake? C: He made a mistake. E: Then did he tell a lie or not? C: Yes, he told a lie Interviews/questionnaires Advantages Can yield a lot of information quickly In-depth data about individuals Disadvantages Often inaccurate Selective memories Social desirability Lack of objectivity Structured Observation Advantages Generate interesting behavior Greater control over the context Disadvantages Less natural context Rater agreement Expensive Preferential looking tasks The Strange Situation episode 4; mother leaves infant with stranger episode 5; mother returns Structured tasks Design Issues A major goal is to determine how particular variables are related to each other associations (correlations) cause-effect relations Correlation Design Correlation : The association between two variables Researcher gathers information about the variables of interest, with no intervention Example: Measure (1) how much violent TV children watch Measure (2) how many acts of violence children engage in during play...
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This note was uploaded on 05/05/2008 for the course PSYCH 105 taught by Professor Schwartz during the Winter '08 term at UCSB.

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Psy 105- lecture 2 - Methods Lecture 2- January 10, 2008...

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