Section 1: SHORT TERM IDENTIFICATIONS You will be asked to provide a succinct definition of and explain the significance for environmental history of three of the following terms. Ecological Indian: myth of ecological Indian (as seen in the 1970s “keep America beautiful” PSA) myth that incorporates allusions to better time (like Eden) of pristine environment and abundance as well as savagery in absence of all things European. Mode of Production: Marxist concept; combining means of production and the social context- allows you to understand the stages in theory of history (primitive communism --> Asiatic despotism → Ancient -->Feudal -->Capitalist --> Communism ) Means of production; energy, raw materials, labour, technologies/recipes i.e. means of production in capitalism (industrialization means move from somatic energy to fossil fuels) + social context i.e. primitive communism (small families, no property, social exchanged) Not neutral or complete transition, not possible to go backwards, responsibility of those at peak to help the rest “catch-up” Neolithic Revolution: represents the origins of agriculture with the arrival of plant and animal domestication. Followed by / associated with techniques of organizing social relations to allow continuous reliable source of food. Model of diffusion; 9 starting points/ hearths disperse over time until eventually all ripples join (why some farmers in modern times have representation crops from all of these places). Process takes place over generations, involves tinkering… represents move from H-G’s to agriculturalists. Corn domestication : original plant was a long tall grass, called “Teosinte” gradually and selectively reproduced to arrive at current features of corn. Corn as the most successful plant on earth (very adaptable, variety environments- see McCann article) yet requires human intervention- can’t reproduce itself. Domestication involves humans creating a barrier around a plant/animal and encouraging an evolutionary fork. Consequences of corn domestication – agriculture allows populations to rise, requiring greater yields – leads populations to settle in single place, size and density of population increases. Swidden agriculture : slash and burn agriculture farming method, cutting and burning of plants to create a swidden field, usually applied in shifting cultivation agriculture. First, and still most important, form of forest agriculture. Moderate human manipulation of local ecologies boosts biodiversity Prime movers of the pre-Industrial Era: agents of movement/work in society Biofuels (50 HP) / wind power (5-10 HP) / water power (2-5HP) / animals (<1/2 HP) 1 HorsePower = 24 humans working hard
Biological Ancien Régime: term coined by Fernand Braudel (20C French historian) political and social term of pre-revolutionary France Clergy – those who pray / peasants – those who work / nobility- those who protect There is dominant structure of everyday life that can be applied worldwide; Francis Bacon : philosopher/scientist – Novum Organum (1620)– wrote about nature without animous; treated as inanimate/without a soul.
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