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hist2023finalnotes - Final Exam The Term"Israel"Israel...

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Final Exam The Term “Israel”: - “Israel” first used in reference to a man in scripture accepted by Judaism, Christianity and Islam o Abraham was the patriarch of Palestine Moved from “Ur” in upper Iraq area Ishmael born from wife’s servant (forced to flee later on) Tradition says he is the first of the Arabs Sarah bore him Isaac Isaac had two sons (Jacob and Esau) o Jacob (Israel) claims the inheritance of the land o Fighting for claims that are 3000 years old - Name given to a kingdom led by descendents of Israel established in Palestine about 3000 years ago o 12 tribes quarreled 2 left and formed Judah o Both kingdoms were “Hebrews” o In 722 Israel was conquered by the Babylonians and the term “Israel” disappeared from use People scattered The “Diaspora” = the scattering Small colonies of Jews could be found around the Middle East o Judah was conquered about 150 years later (used the tern “Jews”) o The colonies hung together based on: Religion and rules (dress, food, etc.) They believed that someday they would get the homeland back Islam emerges in 7 th Century AD: - Spurging conquest from India to Morocco - Stopped in Tours, France by Martell of France o Saved Europe and saved Christianity Jews in Middle East were allowed to worship Jews in Europe were treated badly by Christians - Jews were responsible for the death of Christ = origin of Anti-Semitism - Jews were treated worse in Christian lands than they were in Muslim lands - England, France, Spain and Portugal all expelled their Jews after the Crusades o European Jews were forced to flee east and found refuge in Poland 1700 = spirit of Toleration began to re-appear - Italy and Western regions of Germany, France and England got better - The hallmark came during the French Revolution when Jews were granted equal and complete citizenship 1
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Poland engaged in “Pogram” = state sponsored persecution of Jews - Jews began to flee West now - European Jews tried to Assimilate in order to fit in o They watered down their requirements - Those fleeing Pograms were very orthodox and did not assimilate o They stuck out and were scapegoats for problems o Revival of Anti-Semitism in West Europe - Dreyfus Affair = most famous trial and spy issue o September 1894 Capt. A. Dreyfus of France was accused of treason for giving things to Germans o Sentenced to life on Devil’s Island off South America Hell hole spiders hunt birds o Eventually he was cleared (charged and cleared out of prejudice) o Because it happened in France (where they had first been given complete citizenship), this terrified Jews everywhere o Proof Anti-Semitism could break out anywhere and convinced Jews they needed their own country - 1897 Switzerland o Formed the “Zionist” o Goal to buy enough land in Palestine and slowly take it over and turn it into a Jewish homeland - World War 1 started in 1914: o Ottoman Empire / Turkey (Islamic Country) sided with Germany o 1917
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hist2023finalnotes - Final Exam The Term"Israel"Israel...

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