HISTORY MIDTERM –FINAL STUDY GUIDE B. Civil War A. Lincoln’s War Goals 1. to preserve the Union at all costs 2. to subdue the South 3. starting in 1862, wanted to end slavery 4. He would never really accept the fact of seceding from the Union 5. Known as the “great emancipator” 6. He felt that it was a blight on the republic 7. His original intentions were not to end slavery B. Jefferson Davis 1. Think skinned 2. Did not want to be President, wanted to be general 3. Favored expansion of slavery 4. Wanted to establish national sovereignty for the CSA [neither side was prepared to place large army in the field] C. Robert E. Lee 1. Colonel in US Army 2. Resigned post in VA seceded 3. Served as military advisor to Jefferson Davis 4. The epitome of the Christian soldier 5. Placed state ahead of his family 6. Religious man, known as the “gray fox” 7. Willing to take tremendous risks D. Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson 1. Graduate of West Point 2. Served in Mexican War 3. Retired from military life in 1852 to teach math at VMI 4. Became a major general in civil war 5. Presbyterian, kind of Calvinist E. Ulysses S. Grant 1. West point graduate 2. reputation as heavy drinker haunted him throughout the war 3. appointed commander-in-chief of the union armies by Lincoln in 1864 4. Overwhelmingly won presidency in 1868 5. He supervised many military aspects of Reconstruction F. George McClellan 1. graduated west point 2. Commander of Ohio Volunteer 3. Brilliant at building up what had been torn down
4. Wonderful organizer and administrator but did not actually want to fight 5. Considered a brilliant failure: always tentative about movement, always thinking he was outnumbered by the Confederacy II. Battles of Civil War A. Fort Sumter 1. April 12 th , 1861: boats are heading across Charleston harbor & Confederates open fire 2. First battle of the Civil War 3. April 15 th , 1861: Lincoln issued a proclamation calling 75,000 militia men into national service for ninety days to put down the insurrection 4. Nobody was stationed in Fort Sumter 5. agreement is made between South Carolina and the government: SC will leave the garrison but the government can’t send any thing 6. Lincoln sends message to governor: ONLY supplies for the men, no fighting 7. Confederates win at Fort Sumter B. Bull Run 1. July 21 st , 1861 2. Confederates were victorious 3. “Our army was more disorganized by victory then the army of the US by defeat.” 4. Long term impact on Northern end –3 year volunteers 5. Eventually Union army retreated 6. Long-term impact of battles on war: Lincoln is calling for 3-year volunteers C. Antietam 1. July 3 rd , 1863 2. Militarily, the turning point of the war 3. Lincoln wrote the Emancipation Proclamation in the summer of 1862 and his Cabinet signed approval 4. November 22 nd , 1863: Lincoln used Emancipation Proclamation; freed all slaves in areas held by the Confederacy 5. Antiedam broke a string of Confederate success 6. Emancipation Proclamation redefined the Union as a new nation 7. bloodiest single day of the battle 8. Northern victory 9. on the first day of fighting, the rebels fell back
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