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2-15 cancer notes - CANCER MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS Outline 9 I...

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CANCER - MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS – Outline 9 I. General Information A. Epidemiology - #2 killer in US; #1 killer of children 1-14; ~ 9 million people are “living with cancer” in US; In US, men have 1:2 chance of developing cancer; women have 1:3 B. Types of cancer a. Carcinomas – epithelial –skin, NS, linings b. Leukemias – bone marrow, blood c. Sarcomas – connective tissues, bone, cartilage, muscle d. Lymphomas – lymph tissue e. Adenocarcinomas – glands, liver, breast C. Pathogenesis: uncontrolled cell growth; Starts with dysplasia - changed cells. May cause benign tumor –mass of cells that stay in place (in situ) and does not invade surrounding tissue; may cause malignant tumor – mass of cells that invades surrounding tissue; May metastasize – migrate to another site. Various causes, progressions, and treatments of cancer; malignant cells eventually “crowd out” normal cells loss of function, death; Abnormal cells may arise spontaneously; rate is greatly inc. by exposure to carcinogen (cancer-causing agent) D. Carcinogens: a. tobacco use ~30% of cancer deaths b. Alcohol use ~4% of cancer deaths c. nutrition: weight, eating fruits and vegetables, high fiber foods, less fat, limiting smoked or nitrite cured meat d. environmental factors: chemicals, radiation, viruses e. host factors: hormones, immunity, genes E. Treatment: surgery, radiation, radioactive substances, chemotherapy, Immunotherapy; “cure” – no evidence of cancer in 5 yr F. Prevention: avoid carcinogens; early diagnosis by screenings – Am. Cancer Society recommends “cancer checkup” every 3 years II. Characteristics of cancer cells A.Loss of restraint on division: contact inhibition, limits on life span (HeLa) B.Escape from programmed death – apoptosis C.Angiogenesis – create blood supply D.Loss of adhesion III. Seven Warning Signs Change in bowel or bladder habit A sore that does not heal Unusual bleeding or discharge Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere Indigestion or difficulty swallowing Obvious change in wart or mole Nagging cough or hoarseness IV. Types of Cancer
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A. Lung – Epi.: #1 cancer killer in US; twice as many males as females Risk factors: smoking, radioactivity, chem. (asbestos, others), air pollution
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