Psy101 psychology s07 exam2

Psy101 psychology s07 exam2 - MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the...

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Unformatted text preview: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alt 1) The schedule of reinforcement that leads to low rates of responding immediately after the presentation of a reward, but a high rate of responding when the time for reward is near is called A) variable ratio. B) fixed ratio. C) fixed interval. D) variable interval. 2) Lisa constantly watches professional basketball games. Whenever she sees a new shot performed, she goes to the court and tries it out at home on her court. Her change in behavior due to watching the games can best be explained on the basis of A) observational learning. B) operant conditioning. C) instrumental learning. D) classical conditioning. 3) If a conditioned stimulus is presented again at a later time after extinction, it may evoke a weak conditioned response, even though it was not paired again with the unconditioned stimulus. This phenomenon is referred to as A) spontaneous recovery. B) stimulus generalization. C) latent reconditioning. D) stimulus discrimination. 4) In positive reinforcement, some event or stimulus is after a behavior, and the behavior is as a result. A) produced; weakened B) removed; weakened C) produced; strengthened D) removed; strengthened 5) When given the choice, many children will choose a smaller, immediate reward over a larger, delayed reward, illustrating the tendency called A) impulsiveness. B) procrastination. C) emotionality. D) rationality. 6) In the process of shaping, actions that remotely resemble the target behavior are called A) fractional responses. B) goal approximations. C) successive approximations. D) anticipatory responses. 7) In a ratio schedule of reinforcement, a response is reinforced based on , while in an interval schedule, the response is reinforced based on A) principles of classical conditioning; principles of operant conditioning B) the number of responses since the last reinforcement; the amount of time since the last reinforcement C) principles of operant conditioning; principles of classical conditioning D) the amount of time since the last reinforcement; the number of responses since the last reinforcement 1) 2) 4) 5) 6) 15) Lisa has studied a list of 25 states and then is asked to remember the names of all 50 states. Her 15) overall performance on this task would probably be due to the impact of A) increased; encoding enhancement B) decreased; retrieval inhibition C) decreased; encoding inhibition D) increased,- retrieval enhancement 16) When Iane takes notes in class, she focuses on what is important to remember for future exams. 16) Jane is using her while she is writing down notes. A) short-term memory B) long-term memory C) episodic memory D) working memory 1'?) Human memory is especially superior to a computer in its ability to 17) A) quickly compute multiple calculations. B) do repetitive memory actions for a long period of time. C) store and retain lots of information in a complete unchanged form. D) locate and retrieve material using only partial cues. 18) Impairment of memory for events that occur prior to severe head injury is called 18) A) anterograde amnesia. B) selective forgetting. C) retrograde amnesia. D) hyperamnesia. 19) The theory states that individuals make decisions and judgments based on a general 19) idea behind a memory rather than the actual information. A) suggestibility B) fuzzy—trace C) gut-level D) retrieval inhibition 20) A model of memory in which emphasis is placed on processes that contribute to remembering 20) rather than on different memOry systems is called A) consolidation model. B) levels of processing model. C) modal model. D) parallel distributed processing model. 21) Short—term memory is to as working memory is to . 21) A) limited; unlimited B) tool box; workbench C) workbench; toolbox D) unlimited; limited 22) The suggests that language is acquired through the use of statistical features of 22) linguistic input that helps us discover sound patterns, words, and grammar. A) calculated statistical acquisition device B) constrained statistical phonological framework C) constrained statistical learning framework D) conceptual statistical learning device 31) The branch of psychology that focuses on changes in one's lifetime is called psychology. A) child B) personality C) deveIOpmenta] D) aging 32) In the transition from childhood to adulthood, puberty is a is a transition. transition, and adolescence A) physical; cognitive B) physical; cultural C) cognitive; physical D) cultural; physical 33) Lisa's mother has terminal cancer. She is now promising to change her life and become a model human being and to lead a very religious life if only she can be cured. According to Kubler—Ross, she is in the stage of A) recruitment. B) optimism. C) bargaining. D) denial. 34) Which of the following eighth graders is more likely to start smoking? A) An "outsider" student whose best friend does not smoke. B) An "outsider" student whose best friend started smoking in the seventh grade. C) An "outsider" student whose enemy does not smoke. D) An "outsider" student whose parents smoke. 35) Ivan Pavlov, a Nobel Prize winning physiologist from Russia, is considered to have "discovered" A) classical conditioning. B) systematic desensitization. C) conditioned taste aversion. D) operant conditioning. 36) Lisa will work diligently at her job as a baker in order to receive a salary. In this case, the salary would be considered a A) contractual reinforcer B) negative reinforcer C) primary reinforcer D) conditioned reinforcer 37) Which of the following is an area in which knowledge of conditioned taste aversions can improve people's lives? A) Controlling excess digestive system activity. B) Improving the appetites of chemotherapy patients. C) Teaching sheep to avoid wolves and other predators. D) Training animals to perform circus tricks. 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 45) In negative reinforcement, some event or stimulus is after a behavior, and the behavior 45) 15 as a result. A) removed; strengthened B) produced; strengthened C) removed; weakened D) produced; weakened 46) The fact that material learned in one environment is more difficult to remember in an environment 46) very different than the original one is called A) tip—of—the—tongue phenomenon. B) context—dependent memory. C) episodic retention. D) Korsakoff's syndrome. 47) Which of these factors would tend to make it more liker that someone will escalate a commitment 47) that has already been made? A) Overwhelming evidence of failure. B) A fear of punishment. C) A need to justify one's decision. D) A limit on the resources that are available. 48) The visual cliff apparatus is used to study 48) A) form perception. B) depth perception. C) cognitive dissonance. D) pattern recognition. 49) If an animal distributes its behavior between alternative schedules of reinforcement in order to get 49) the largest amount of reinforcement possible, it is following the A) matching law. B) fixed/variable ratio schedule rule. C) variable/fixed interval schedule rule. D) stimulus control law. 50) The capacity of short—term memory is 50) A) only one idea at any one time. B) impossible to measure. C) around seven chunks. D) essentially unlimited. 23) The type of knowledge involves understanding of the meaning of words. 23) A) semantic B) phonological C) morphological D) syntactical 24) According to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, we would have less racial prejudice in our society 24) if A everyone had the same skin color. ) B) we worked harder to maintain our cultural heritages. C) English had fewer words for racial differences. ) D everyone's vision actually were color blind. 25) People who tell you after—the-fact that they "knew" you would win an athletic competition, for 25) example, a bicycle race, demonstrate a reasoning bias known as the A) means-ends analysis. B) motivation bias. C) hindsight effect. D) confirmation bias. 26) Which of the following holophrases would you expect from a young child? 26) A) no B) milk C) aaaaah D) meow 27) One complaint about early research on the language abilities of animals is that 27) A) the animals showed no signs of creativity. B) the animals were not actually taught to speak. C) the research only used gorillas, not other animals. D) the researchers may have been unintentionally giving cues to the animals. 28) Cognitive frameworks that represent our knowledge of and assumptions about the world are called 28) A) schemas. B) concepts. C) visual images. D) sensory memories. 29) Jean Piaget believed that children 29) A) have innate cognitive capacities for mathematics and reasoning. B) do not think as adults do. C) think as adults do. D) cannot acquire cognitive capacities until language has developed. 30) 30) A gender schema is A) an understanding that one's sex will not change easily over time. B) an expectation that one will be rewarded for certain types of behaviors. C) a set of beliefs about how males and females are expected to behave. D) a set of moral judgments about the proper behavior of males and females. 8) Which of the following aspects is accurate regarding the definition of learning? A) Learning applies to positive changes in behavior only. B) Learning applies to temporary changes in behavior. C) Learning applies to changes in behavior as a result of maturation. D) Learning can result from vicarious and well as direct experiences. 9) After repeatedly watching a video of a really scary movie put out by a small independent film company, Lisa found that just seeing the company's logo made her heart start to pound. This is an example of what type of learning? A) observational learning B) maturational learning C) classical conditioning D) operant conditioning 10) Which of the following perspectives suggests that expectations are formed as a result of CS—US pairings? A) Premack's principles of associationism B) the biological constraint notion of conditioning C) the cognitive view of conditioning D) Pavlov's principles of associationism 11) Which of the following has NOT been shown to be related to television violence? A) Overt aggressive behavior. B) Improved work performance. C) Acceptance of violence. D) Lessened emotional reactions to violence. 12) Heroin addicts may need more heroin in order to obtain the desired effects if they always inject A) in a different context, for example, always finding a new dealer at a different supply house. B) in the same vein. C) on a full stomach. D) in the same room of their house. 13) A is a cognitive framework that represents a person's knowledge and assumptions about the world. B) construction D) prototype A) schema C) cognition 14) The inability to recall events that happened to us during the first two or three years of life is known as A) toddler repression. B) infantile amnesia. C) neonatal interference. D) childhood suppression. 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 38) According to Howe and Courage, the most likely explanation currently held for the inability to remember what happened during the first two or three years of life is A) insufficient brain mechanisms. B) immaturity of the autonomic nervous system. C) the lack of self—concept during this time period. D) the lack of language during this time period. 39) Which of the following statements about forgetting information is NOT true? A) Recall can improve over time. B) Forgetting is a function of the passage of time. C) Information already in the memory interferes with new information, causing the potential for forgetting information. D) What happens between leaming and recall is crucial to the ability to recall information, regardless of how much time has passed. 40) A modern view of memories suggests that they are represented A) in the left hemisphere. B) linearly in the thalamus and hypothalamus. C) only in the hippocampus. D) in multiple locations in the brain. _ 41) Washoe the chimpanzee learned to communicate with the Gardners using A) computer symbols. B) phonetic spelling. C) flash cards. D) American Sign Language. 42) Concepts can be represented as A) images. B) visual images, features, or schemas. C) schemas. D) features. 43) The tendency of young children to call all adult females "Mommy" is an example of what Piaget would call A) assimilation. B) accommodation. C) conservation. D) decentration. 44) Erikson‘s fourth stage occurs during the early school years, between the ages of six and twelve, where children learn to make things, use tools, and acquire many of the skills necessary for adult life. This stage centers around A) initiative versus guilt. B) trust versus mistrust. C) industry versus inferiority. D) autonomy versus shame and doubt. 33) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) ...
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This test prep was uploaded on 02/15/2008 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Graham during the Spring '07 term at UCSD.

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Psy101 psychology s07 exam2 - MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the...

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