chapter35 - Chapter 35 The Laws of Geometric Optics The Ray...

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Chapter 35 The Laws of Geometric Optics
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The Ray Approximation of Light in Geometric Optics Geometric optics studies the propagation of light. Light travels in a straight-line path in a uniform medium. Light changes its direction when it meets the interface of two media. Here reflection and refraction take place. Propagation of light in non-uniform medium is not discussed here. The ray approximation is used to represent beams of light. Each ray is represented as a line. The rays are straight lines perpendicular to the wave fronts The path of light is reversible.
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Reflection of Light Reflection: a ray of light, the incident ray , changes its direction at the interface of two media, and travels back in the same medium of the incident ray. Two types of reflection: Specular reflection: reflection from a smooth surface. For parallel incidence, the reflected rays are parallel to each other. Diffuse reflection: reflection from a rough surface. Reflected rays travel in a variety of directions even for parallel incidence. We will only discuss specular reflections here. Specular reflection Diffuse reflection Medium 1 Medium 2 Medium 2 Medium 1
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Law of Reflection The incident angle and the reflection angle. Incident angle: t he angle ( in the diagram) the incident ray makes with the normal of the interface at which the reflection takes place. Reflection angle: t he angle ( in the diagram) the reflected ray makes with the normal of the interface at which the reflection takes place. The Law of reflection: The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal are all in one plane.
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