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Unformatted text preview: Thursday, January 24, 2008 1648 – Peace of Westphalia • Poland was a major great power in the late 17 th century • Russia was much smaller (under a different name) • Denmark included Norway – large player on the scene during the 30 years war and during the mid-17 th century • Extent of the Ottoman Empire – stretching deep into central Europe, including most of today’s Hungary and Romania • Spain is the superpower. Great empire in the Americas, also has a large slice of Italy • Germany does not exist as a territorial entity; is split amongst 300 princes • Holy Roman Empire is massive, where today’s Germany is and stretching east, west, and south. • Holy Roman Empire, under a federal system. Goal of the Holy Roman Emperor, as with all emperors, is to increase his sphere of control. • Religious divide is the major source of conflict for the 30 years war. • Even today – north Germany is Protestant, south Germany is Catholic • Westphalia was where the treaty took place – just south of the country of Bremen, underneath modern Denmark Lecture outline • Peace of Westphalia – 1648 • 1. Introduction: Peace of Westphalia ends the 30 years war. Treaties of Munster and Osnabruck collectively known as Peace of Westphalia • 2. Thirty Years War • 3. Decisions • 4. Significance of the “Westphalian system” – sovereign states answerable only to themselves, taken for granted in today’s international politics • 5. Attitudes to war Two separate conferences for Westphalia Why? Swedish Protestant reservations about the Pope Swedes would not sit down in the same room with papal representatives. Catholics and papal representatives mostly in Munster Protestants mostly in Osnabruck Two treaties in 1648, follow-up conference in 1650 to finalize the deal Why important? First general peace congress in the history of Europe. Peace treaties in the past were between individual countries. Peace Conferences: Westphalia – 1648 Utrecht(?) – 1713 Congress of Vienna – 1815 (ended a generation of revolutionary and Napoleonic wars) Paris Peace Conference – after WW1 Attempted Paris Peace Conference after WW2, but because of the Cold War, did not reach results Westphalia – did not bring complete peace in Europe, war continued between France and Spain for another 10 years. But brought the 30 years war to an end. Why did it take so long to reach peace? (Gives us some insight into how 17 th century international relations operated) 1. Precedent. Who should come to a congress, where it should be held, protocol (which language should be spoken). Latin previously was the universal language of European diplomacy. Westphalia marked a period of transition; French is increasingly coming in. French delegates at Westphalia drew up a treaty in French, insisted in speaking in French. Spanish insisted on speaking Castilian, because they were rivals of the French....
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- Spring '07
- History, Thirty Years' War, Peace of Westphalia, Westphalia