Semester Test 2 Review: Chapter 51. Definition and examples of organizations: Organizations are collectives purposely constructed to achieve particular ends. Examples include your college or university, which has the objective of educating you as well as your fellow students; corporations, such as Apple, Google, and Walmart, whose objective is to earn profits; the International Monetary Fund (IMF), which seeks to stabilize currency exchanges throughout the world; and Greenpeace, which works to protect and conserve the global environment.2.Definition and examples of organizations:There is a particularly long and deep body of work in sociology that deals with organizations -Much of it traceable to the thinking of Max Weber on a particular kind of organization, the bureaucracy. A bureaucracy is a highly rational organization, especially one that is very efficient-Bureaucracies are not always so rational and are even as irrational as you undoubtedly sometimes find them to be. -Is a key element of Weber’s theory of the rationalization of the Western world.-Best exemplifies what Weber meant by rationalization. A continuous series of offices, or positions. Each office has official functions andis bound by a set of rules.Each office has a specified sphere of competence. Those who occupy the positions are responsible for specific tasks and have the authority to handle them. Those in related offices are obligated to help with those tasks.The offices exist in a vertical hierarchy.The positions have technical requirements, and those who hold those offices must undergo the needed training.Organizations, not those who occupy its positions, own the things (computers, desks) needed to do the job. Those who occupy particular offices—chief executive officers, for example—cannot take the offices as their own; these remain part of the organization.Everything of formal importance—administrative acts, decisions, rules—is documented in writing.
Semester Test 2 Review: Chapter 53.Max Weber’s theory or rationalization:Max Weber’s theory of rationalization: -they are NOT always so rational and are evenas irrational as you undoubtedly sometimes find them to be. -dominated sociological thinking about organizations and led it to many important insights about the social world.4.Authority Structures and Bureaucracy:Domination: Domination is the probability, or likelihood, that commands will beobeyed by subordinates (Weber  1968). There are degrees of domination. Strong domination involves a high probability that commands will be obeyed; domination is weak when the probability of obedience is low.