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geology test #3 study guide

geology test #3 study guide - Indirect ways to measure 1...

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Indirect ways to measure… 1. weighted lines : rock on string to measure depth 2. sonar : reflects sound from ocean floor 3. satellites : tells us more about ocean floor shape, not depth really *must measure multiple times Major Ocean Provinces… 1. Continental Margin (shelf slope rise) - passive (not associated with plate boundaries) - active (associated with plate boundaries) 2. Deep Ocean Basin 3. Mid Ocean Ridge - deep ocean basin – deepest part of ocean (where plates plunge into mantle) - guyot - shave of surface, allows for cooling to occur - rift valley – where eruptions happen, closer to rift the younger the material - supercontinent clycle rifting and dispersal of one supercontinent is followed by a long period as fragments are reassembled (Wilson Cycle) - seamount – type of deep ocean basin - turbidity currents – deposit sediment to form deep sea fans - orgenesis – the processes producing mountains - sutures – line that separates 2 formally different pieces of crust - terranes – small crustal fragments with different history that adjacent crust - accretion – addition of terranes to continental crust by movement of plates - fault black mtns – can form elongated ridges, and can be very tall - craton –stable places – igneous metamorphic rocks exposed at surface covered by sedimentary rocks Hydrolic Cycle… 1. evaporation – water to water vapor 2. transportation – release of water from plants to atmosphere 3. i nfiltration – filters into rock Stream flow… 1. laminar 2. turbulent – moves sideways and up and down Factors to determine velocity… - gradient - shape - discharge Stream Profile… 1. Head – highest velocity, where the stream begins, highest erosion 2. Mouth – highest discharge - base level – where water is trying to get everywhere equal to by erosion and depositing (ultimate base level changes multiple times) *raising = deposition *lowering = erosion Types of Stream Loads… 1. bed loads 2. suspended loads 3. dissolved loads - capacity – total amount that can be carried - competence – how big of particle stream can carry - alluvium – any size particle
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