Phil411 f06 final exam study guide

Phil411 f06 final exam study guide - 3, .j\ rut -‘ 5: 3...

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Unformatted text preview: 3, .j\ rut -‘ 5: 3 Ancient Philosophy 411 Study Guide Final Exam Questions Exam #1 1. What are the principle differences between the pre—philosophical ancient Greek understanding of the world and the early pre-Socratic understanding of the world? Explain why someone might think the early pre-Socratic understanding is an improvement over the pre—philosophical‘understanding. 2. What is the ancient Greek conception of a KOSMOS? What are Thales’, Anaximander’s, and Anaximenes’ central claims about the KOSMOS? Argue that Anaximander’s View improves upon Thales’ View. Argue that Anaximenes’ view improves upon Anaximander’s View. 3. Consider the following argument from the Phaedo 91e—93a: P1: If the soul is a harmony of physical parts, then the soul does not last longer than the body. P2: The soul lasts longer than the body. C: The soul is not a harmony of physical parts. State an objection to P1. (Remember that the only way to object to a conditional statement is to assume the antecedent [the ’if’ clause] is true and‘argue that, nevertheless, the consequent [the ’then’ clause] is false.) 4. In the Euthyphro, at 10d, Euthyphro What the pious is what all the gods love. Explain Socrates’ argument (found at 10d-11b) against Euthyphro’s definition. 5. In the Apology at 25a-b, Socrates argues that only an expert could improve or corrupt the young. Argue that Socrates’ argument is unsound. 6. Consider the following argument from the Crito: P1: If (1) the laws provided for one’s birth, nurture, education, and other basic goods, and if (2) one did not reject the laws and leave the community, and if (3) one made no effort to reform the laws, then one has made a just agreement to obey the laws. P2: Socrates has satisfied conditions 1 — 3 of P1. Page 1 of 15 . Ancient Philosophy 411 Study Guide Final Exam C: Socrates has made a just agreement to obey the laws. Argue against P1. (Remember that the only way to criticize a conditional statement is to assume the antecedent [the ’if’ clause] is true and argue that, nevertheless, the consequent [the 'then’ clause] is false.) 7. State Plato’s concept of knowledge (as presented in my lecture on Plato’s the Theaetetus). For each necessary condition, present an example that demonstrates why the condition is necessary. 8. Consider the following problem: Socrates examines the views others have about virtue, and refutes them. Socrates claims to be on a mission from god (Apollo) to get others to care about virtue. Problem: How does refuting their views on virtue help them to care about virtue? Argue for a solution to this problem. 9. Consider the following problem: Socrates claims to know nothing. Socrates makes claims that imply he has knowledge: a. Virtue is knowledge. b. Weakness of the will is impossible. c. No one is voluntarily vicious. Problem: How can he both know and not know? Argue for a solution to this problem. 10. Consider the following problem: Socrates clearly leads people out of their ignorance. Socrates claims not to be a teacher. Page 2 of 15 2 . Ancient Philosophy 411 Study Guide Final Exam Problem: How is this possible? Argue for a solution to this problem. 11. Consider the following problem: If knowledge is virtue and only the virtuous should rule, then Socrates’ politics must be aristocratic. Socratic elenchus can be applied to anyone, and Socrates claims that, for all human beings, the unexamined life is not worth living. So his philosophical method is frankly democratic. Problem: Is Socrates an aristocrat or a democrat? Argue for a solution to this problem. 12. Consider the following argument: P1: For every conclusion of “scientific research” C and every argument A of weight w made in support of C, there is an argument B (v5 A) of weight 0 = w in support of not—C. P2: One should only assent to what has more evidence in its favor than otherwise. C: One should suspend judgment with respect to all of the conclusions of scientific research. Present an argument against P1. Present an argument against P2. 13. Consider the following argument: P1: One should assent to claim A if, and only if, (1) A is the product of passive sensory impressions and (2) one is compelled to assent to A. P2: Real objects are never the products of passive sensory impressions, and one is never involuntarily led to assent to claims about real objects. C: One should never assent to claims about real objects. Page 3 of 15 ‘ Ancient Philosophy 411 Study Guide Final Exam Present an argument against P1. Present an argument against P2. 14. State Plato’s conception of truth. Provide an example that illustrates this concept. Based on your understanding of Pyrrhonian Skepticism, argue that we cannot know any scientific trUths about real objects. 15. Describe the chief characteristics of the ancient Greek Sophists. Using Plato’s conception of truth, argue for an interpretation of the following statement from Protagoras: Man is the measure of all things—of things that are, that they are, and of things that are not, that they are not. 16. What is an enumerative definition? Provide an example of an enumerative definition. What is an essential definition? Provide an example of an essential definition. State the Socratic Method of Elenchus. Provide an example of this method (either from Plato’s dialogue, or one that you have invented). 17. Consider the following conception of justice: P is just if P gives to each what is owed to them. Argue that this conception is incorrect. 18. What was the motivation for Ionian Pre—Socratic philosophy? What was the motivation for Pythagorean philosophy? Argue that these two conceptions are compatible. Questions Exam #2 1. State the divided line simile concerning the different powers of the human soul and their corresponding objects (found at Republic, Book VI, 509d and following). Consider the following interpretation of Protagoras’ epistemology: P1: Truth is identical with Being. P2: Truth is a relation ultimately existing only between a perceiver and the sensations had by that perceiver. Page 4 of 15 4 . Ancient Philosophy 411 Study Guide Final Exam C1: Being is a relation ultimately existing only between a perceiver and the sensations had by that perceiver. Explain, using your understanding of Plato’s epistemology and metaphysics, how Plato responds to both P1 and P2. Answer: P1: Plato would argue in favor of P1 because according to Plato’s divided line truth is only attained in the realm of being with in the divided line. If truth only exists within the realm of being, then it is justified to conclude that they are identical. P2: Plato would respond by arguing that this is not the case because in order to achieve truth one must use eikisia, pistis, dionia, and noesis. Eikisia are perceptions and pistis are sensations experienced. Although these are necessary conditions for truth, they are not sufficient because in order to achieve truth one must also possess dionoia (mathematical knowledge) and noeisis (understanding) 2. State, and explain using examples, two of the ways in which we might interpret Heraclitus’ claim that everything changes. Choose one of these interpretations and, using Plato’s definition of human cognitive powers (discussed in the lecture on Plato’s metaphysics and based on Republic, Book V, and 477c-478b), explain why knowledge is impossible in a Heraclitean KOSMOS. Answer: 3 Interpretations: 1. Everything is always changing in even respect 2. Everything is always changing in some respect 3. Everything changes in some respect at some time and so things can remain the same in almost all respects Problem: Heraclitus' view of nothing changing is sufficient for Plato's realm of being in which nothing changes. However, in Plato's realm of becoming, or the sensible realm, consisting of shadows, perception, and images, change is constantly occurring. The realm of becoming is the first level that must be achieved in order to reach the highest realm of being and possess understanding and noesis, knowledge. Therefore, if Heralcitus doesn't accept change it is impossible for the realm of becoming to exist. Without the realm of becoming, one cannot achieve the realm of being and have knowledge. Therefore, knowledge in a heraclitean kosmos in light of Plato is impossible. 3. State and explain the three ontological categories acknowledged by Plato. Consider the following arguments for the existence of non—sensible objects: Page 5 of 15 5 // Ancient Philosophy 411 Study Guide 1. Argument from general terms: P1: Either the general terms of languages refer to sensible objects or to non-sensible objects. P2: If the general terms in our languages refer to sensible objects, then the meaning of the general terms in our languages changes over time. P3: The meaning of the general terms in our languages does not change over time. P4: The general terms in our languages do not refer to sensible objects. C1: The general terms in our language refer to non-sensible objects. Argue against P2. 2. Argument from ideas: P1: Either the content of our ideas corresponds with sensible objects or non-sensible objects. P2: If the content of our ideas corresponds with sensible objects, then the content of our ideas changes over time. P3: The content of our ideas does not change over time. P4: The content of our ideas does not correspond with sensible objects. C1: The content of our ideas corresponds with non-sensible objects. Argue against P2. 3. Argument from knowledge: P1: We possess knowledge. P2: P1 only if there is some object that does not change. C1: There is some object that does not change. P4: Every sensible object changes. C2: There is some non-sensible object that does not change. Argue against P1. Argue against P4. Page 6 of 15 6 A Ancient Philosophy 411 Study Guide Final Exam 4. State the Plato’s Method of Dialectic, explaining each of the methods that it includes. Answer: Hypothesis: for every topic, adopt a plausible hypothesis. Assume that whatever is presupposed by this hypothesis is true and whatever is inconsistent is false. Examine the consequences of the hypothesis. If the hypothesis implies a contradiction, then reject is and adopt the next most plausible hypothesis. Ex: Hypothesis that direct viewing of the sun can ruin their eyes unless they watch its reflection in water or some such material. He has seen people looking at the eclipse. Ex: Feared that his soul would be altogether blinded if he looked at things with his eyes and tried to grasp them with each of his senses. So he must investigate the truth of tings by means of words. Collection: specific to general For each set of similar beings, Ex: angling, hooking, striking, fishing, aquatic hunting, animal hunting, hunting, taking possession, acquisition Division: general to specific Ex: acquisition, taking possession, hunting, animal-hunting, aquatic- hunting, fishing, striking, hooking, angling Dialectic: a. apply the methods of collection, and hypothesis to formulate essential definitions for each essential property until you reach the most general hypothesis about the most general essential property. (describe the method of hypothesis and collection) b. Beginning with the most general hypothesis, use the method of division to form essential definition of the essential properties of each essential definition (describe method of division) c. Defend all of these essential definitions against the Socratic Elenchus which is: Interloct questions Y Interlocutor assents to P Interlocutor offers answer to question what is x I assents to Q, R, S Q, R, S implies not P So he retracts P 5. In the following three arguments ’SHB’ means the same as ’sensible human being’ and ’FHB’ means the same as ’intelligible form of a human being’. Answer: Page 7 of 15 7 Ancient Philosophy 411 Study Guide Final Exam Argument #1 P1: If each of the many SHB's gets a share of the FHB, then either each SHB gets a share of the FHB as a whole or each SHB gets a share of part of the FHB The third option is that it gets both because the SHB can ha SHB participation in FHB is subject to change as is all other sensible objects; therefore, it is conceivable to have a whole or a part at different times. SHB is participating in the FHB and it is not sharing rather it participating (Plato’s Theory) The relationship between the SHB and the FHB is participation Sensible human beings do not get a share in the form of a human being It is a participation, it is not divisible You cannot get a share of something that is not quantifiable, the forms are unchanging, eternal, non temporal, whole and continuous Because the forms are unchanging and The definition of the form of the human being does not allow for a part, you Argument #2 P4: If each of the many SHB's gets a share of the FHB as a whole, then the FHB is _|_1_o_t separate from itself. The FHB is not separate from itself because the essence of the FHB is simple, hence indivisible and thus through the principle of non contradiction it cannot be indivisible. The only way something can be identical is if it is simple, if it is simple then it is not made of separate parts. Argument #3 P7: If the FHB is divisible into discrete parts, then an indivisible thing is _r_I_o_t divisible P8: Nothing indivisible is divisible The essence of an object that is indivisible is that it cannot be divided; this violates the principle of non contradiction, something cannot be both indivisible and divisible Ex: atom cannot be divided, it is indivisible Plato's forms are indivisible Plato's lower forms are divisible and cannot be indivisible 6. How are words, concepts and things in the world related, according to Aristotle? How do we acquire the first principles of demonstrative science, according to chapter 19 of Book II of the Posterior Analytics? Consider the following argument: P1: No substance can be divided into parts. P2: All definitions are divisible into parts. P3: Every definition defines some substance. Page 8 of 15 8 Ancient Philosophy 411 Study Guide Final Exam P4: Every definition has the same compositional structure as that which it defines. Explain why these premises imply that there can be no definition of a substance. Answer: According to Aristotle things in the world are related in one of the following ways Homonymous: they have only a name in common, and the account of the essence corresponding to the name is different Ex: a man and a painted animal are homonymous because they only have a Name in common, the account of the essence is different Synonymous: both the name in common and the same account of the essence Ex: man and an ox they are both animals, since each is called and animal and the account of the essence is the same Paronymous: things that have a name that is derived from something else, but has a different inflection (subtle difference) Ex: brave person from the word bravery Demonstrative science: is a deduction and a deduction is defined as an argument in which, if two propositions P and Q are assumed as premises, then a third proposition R follows necessarily as a conclusion All B are C All A are B Therefore: all A are C A scientific demonstration is a deduction in which the two assumed premises are either first principles or are derived from first principles by means of other scientific deductions. For example: P1.All rational mammals are animals P2.All human's beings are rational mammals C. All human beings are animals P2 is a first principle of what a human being is. P1 is derived from the first principle of a mammal. The first principles of science are the primary premises of that science they express the essential characteristics of the substance about which the given science is concerned, and all other scientific knowledge is derived from the first principles through syllogistic inference. The first principles are acquired through process of perception, each perception creates a memory, which creates an experience, and many experience make a principle Page 9 of 15 9 Ancient Philosophy 411 Study Guide Final Exam 7. Compare and contrast how Pythagoras, Plato, and Aristotle answer the following question: What is wisdom and with what sorts of causes and principles is wisdom concerned? Consider the following restatement of Aristotle’s concept of Demonstrative Scientific Knowledge (EPISTEME): S has demonstrative scientific knowledge (EPISTEME) of E iff 1. S assents to the representational content of the concept of E, 2. The representational content of the concept of E corresponds with reality (’what is’), 3. Sis able to describe the set of properties that distinguishes what is represented by the content of the concept of E from all other things. 4. S assents to the representational content of the concept of the cause of E, 5. The representational content of the concept of the cause of E corresponds with reality (’what is’), 6. Sis able to describe the set of properties that distinguishes what is represented by the content of the concept of the cause E from all other things. 7. S assents to the representational content of the concept that E is necessary, 8. The representational content of the concept that E is necessary corresponds with reality (’what is’), 9. Sis able to describe the set of properties that distinguishes what is represented by the content of the concept that E is necessary from all other things. Explain how this concept relates to Plato’s concept of knowledge and to Plato’s concept of truth. Answer: Pythagorus: the only thing knowable is accessed in a numerical ratio, the entire universe was ordered through mathematical numbers, everything fits. Plato: divided line knowledge is knowledge of the forms, noesis Aristotle: form of cognition, cognition of certain principles. 8. What is the difference between a natural object and an artificial object, according to Aristotle in the Physics? What are the four causes, according to Aristotle in the Physics and the Metaphysics? Analyze yourself in terms of Page 10 of 15 10 * Ancient Philosophy 411 Study Guide Final Exam the four causes. What are the four kinds of change, according to Aristotle? Explain each kind of change in terms of the four causes. Answer: Material cause: the matter in which X comes to be and which persists through the changes suffered by X Your body, the matter Formal cause: the actual configuration of the matter constituting X which endures through changes of accidental properties You soul Efficient cause: the principle which brings about a given change in the matter of X Your parents Final cause: the purpose of a thing, the end toward which the changes suffered by x Wisdom, true knowledge, the supreme good 4 Changes Locomotion Qualitative Quantitative Degeneration 9. In the De Anima, Aristotle states his general definition of a soul. State this definition and explain how it applies to a common plant or animal of your choosing. Explain why, given Aristotle’s conception, it makes no sense to fear an afterlife. Answer: All emotions require a body, Fear requires Soul: Nutritive: requirement of food, the ability Locomotive Appetitive Rational The nutritive is the function for plants that maintains the ratio of various organs of the body. As the body consumes food, something must control the addiction so that the process of growth is in accordance with the body. The food requires a nutritive soul to guide the qualitative change. The locomotive is movement. In order for the soul to acquire the rational, one must live according to the golden mean. 10. What is a categorical theory? Explain Aristotle’s distinctions between substances and accidents and between particulars and universals. Using these distinctions, compare Aristotle’s theory of formal causes with Plato’s theory of intelligible Forms. Page 11 of 15 11 _/// ~ Ancient Philosophy 411 Study Guide EEL/ Questions Final Exam 1. What are the two central questions of the Republic? Using the concepts of function and power explained by Socrates in the Republic, Book I, 352d- 354a, explain Plato’s conception of human virtue and human happiness. Using examples, explain Plato’s conceptions of justice in the city and justice in the soul, as these are presented in Book IV of the Republic. Answer: The two central questions in the Republic are what justice, is pure justice more beneficial than pure injustice. Function is what a thing does well, the purpose that it is best suited for. Ex: eyes have a function to see, ears to hear etc. Human virtue is the harmonious combination of reason, spirit and desire. Anything that has a function has a virtue The souls function is to live, the virtue is to be just and live well Happiness is living well, living is a function of the soul, since the soul has function, follows that the soul must have virtue, justice is virtue of soul; injustice is its vice. A good soul does things well, one that lives well is happy. Plato identifies political justice as harmony in a structured political body. An ideal society consists of three main classes of people— producers (craftsmen, farmers, artisans, etc.), auxiliaries (warriors), and guardians (rulers); a society is just when relations between these three classes are right. Each group must perform its appropriate function, and only that function, and each must be in the right position of power in relation to the others. Rulers must rule, auxiliaries must uphold rulers' convictions, and producers must limit themselves to exercising whatever skills nature granted them (farming, blacksmithing, painting, etc.) Justice is a principle of specialization: a principle that requires that each person fulfill the societal role to which nature fitted him and not interfere in any other business. Each of the three classes of society, in fact, is dominated by one of the three parts of the soul. Producers are dominated by their appetites—their urges for money, luxury, and pleasure. Their virtue is acting in moderation and not being controlled by pleasures. The auxiliaries are the soldiers that defend the city; therefore, their virtue is courage. The rulers the ones that make the rules and rule society, their virtue is wisdom. ***Forms of government monarchy, tyranny, oligarcahy, aristocracy, polity, democracy.*** 2. Explain Aristotle’s conception of the good life for human beings. Using Aristotle’s arguments in Book I of the Nicomachean Ethics explain why Page 12 of 15 12 far—ff - - Ancient Philosophy 411 Study Guide Final Exam Aristotle would reject (a) the claim that the happy life is the life of pleasure and (2) the claim that the happy life is the life dedicated to fame. Answer: Aristotle asserts that the aim of the good life for human beings is to achieve eudemonia; which is the highest level of happiness. There are two types of good: the proximate good and the chief good. Proximate good are things that are desired as a means to something else, they only possess instrumental value. An example is going to work in order to receive money; the job itself is not desired for its own sake, but rather for what it can bring. The chief good or possess intrinsic value; it is desired for its own sake, rather than as a means to something else. Eudemonia is the chief good; it can only be desired for itself. There are three qualities that eudemonia must contain: 1. Must be a final cause desired for its own sake. 2. It must also be self sufficient and to be self sufficient when everything is taken away and with this one thing you still find life worth living. 3. It must be something that is the result of an action, it is an activity. Not something that you are entitled to; it must be a result in the action of you doing something. You have to earn it and work for it. It cannot be given to you by someone else. The good life cannot consist of pleasure or fame. Pleasure is not self sufficient for the good life because the pleasures are constantly changing. Chief happiness does not change. Also, there is a saturation point; if you constantly indulge in your pleasures eventually you will no longer enjoy it and it will cause pain when overindulged in them. The pleasures can be addicting and we then become a slave to our addictions, presumably, human happiness involves being a master not a slave. Pleasure is the highest end for grazing animals, and we assume human happiness is different from that of grazing animals. Fame cannot be the good life because fame must be bestowed upon us by others; thus, can be taken away from others. Eudemonia cannot be bestowed upon us, it is something you must achieve yourself through virtue. Once eudemonia has been achieved it cannot be taken away from anyone because it is something you know possess in your virtue of your actions. Also, those that seek honor for their virtue are valuing virtue more than honor. 4. According to Aristotle in the Politics, there are four human social relations (four human communities) that are natural and necessary for human happiness. State the four human social relationships, and argue that each is necessary for the happiness of the individual. Answer: The four human communities consist of goodness, function, power, and actuality. Page 13 of 15 13 - Ancient Philosophy 411 Study Guide Final Exam (lecture notes 12/7/06) Goodness: the good is defined in terms of its end, goal and purpose. Function: purpose best suited for a thing Power: ability to perform a function Actuality: actualization of a substances potential. Ex: acorn actualizes its potential when it becomes an oak tree. 5. According to Socrates, Aristotle, and the Epicureans: (a) what is the highest good for human beings? (b) How is it related to the virtuous life for human beings? and (c) How can human beings achieve their highest good? Answer: Socrates: Aristotle: According to Aristotle, the highest good for human beings is eudemonia, or happiness. The way to achieve eudemonia is through the virtue of character; which is formed bz habit, by repeating the act it will become habit, not innate must be acquired. The only way to be just is to act justly, eventually you will then become a just person; the just person is judged by the manifestation of his actions and the way in which he acts everyday. Moral virtue is a state of character that lies in the choosing of an act that lies in the mean relative to the act determined by one who has virtue or prudence. In order to choice the virtuous act, one must act according to the golden mean; which is acting with temperance or moderation. The golden mean is acting in moderation rather than being controlled by our desires. There are virtues and vices for each action; virtues are the correct amount and vices are the result of too much or too little of something. For example, courage is a virtue and the corresponding vice for too much courage is fullheartdness and too little courage results in cowardice. In order to posses the virtues, one must act according to the golden mean by not becoming a slave to our desires, moderation or temperance is the way to act virtuously. Epicureans: 6. Consider the following argument from Plato’s Philebus: P1: If pleasure is the ultimate good for human beings, then knowledge is not necessary for human happiness. P2: Knowledge is a necessary for human happiness. C: Pleasure is not the ultimate good for human beings. (A) Explain why Aristotle agrees with P2. (b) Aristotle assumes that every pleasure is identical with some activity. Using this assumption, argue that P1 is false. Page 14 of 15 14 ~- Ancient Philosophy 411 Study Guide Final Exam Answer: If we are rational, we desire to aim at the best end available in action. If we are ignorant of the best end available in action, we are less likely to aim at it. If we are aware of the best action then we have a better chance of achieving it. 7. Plato defends the following two assumptions about human society: #1: If a lawful society is to survive, each member should perform only that function for which he or she is naturally best suited. #2: Each member of a lawful society is naturally best suited to perform only one function. (a) Argue against #1. (b) Argue against #2. Answer: (a) #1: If a lawful society is to survive, then each member should n_ot perform only that function for which he or she is naturally best suited for. This indicates that everyone in society will be performing even those functions that they may not be best suited for; which is not beneficial to society. In order for society to function well it is essential that the members of society perform only the actions that they are experts in because 8. (a) State Aristotle’s concept of virtue. (b) State Aristotle’s conceptions of choice and deliberation. (c) State the three conditions Aristotle lays down for functioning well as a human being. (d) Using these concepts and Aristotle’s conception of the family in the Politics, argue that no human being should commit adultery. Answer: (a) Aristotle’s concept of virtue consists of two types: virtues of intellect and virtues of character. Intellectual virtues are acquired by learning and teaching, it is a life long process, experience and time, not innate must be acquired. Virtue of Character is formed by habit, by repeating the act it will become habit, not innate must be acquired. The only way to be just is to act justly, eventually you will then become a just person; the just person is judged by the manifestation of his actions and the way in which he acts everyday. Moral virtue is a state of character that lies in the choosing of an act that lies in the mean relative to the act determined by one who has virtue or prudence. Moral virtue is formed by habit and choice of the act. (b) Aristotle's concept of choice and deliberation is based on the golden mean; which is acting with temperance or moderation. The golden mean is acting in moderation rather than being controlled by our Page 15 of 15 15 - ‘ Ancient Philosophy 411 Study Guide Final Exam desires. There are virtues and vices for each action; virtues are the correct amount and vices are the result of too much or too little of something. For example, courage is a virtue and the corresponding vice for too much courage is arrogance and too little courage results in cowardice. Because of this one must use choice and deliberation in order to decide how to act. Virtues of character can only be achieved through acting in accordance to the golden mean. The proper determination of the mean is the choice of the mean state which would be made by the man of practical wisdom. Choice is the means determined through deliberation to an end determined by some desiderative faculty. Deliberation is the reasoning about the voluntary acts which lead to an end. Voluntary acts are the actions that are within our power to perform. (c) The three conditions to functioning well are: 1. the agent must know he is functioning well 2. the agent must decide to function well and decide to function well for its own sake 3. the agent must function well because he has developed the habit of so functioning (d) Page 16 of 15 16 ...
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