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PS_40_Study_Guide - PS 40 Study Guide 1 Government policies...

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PS 40 Study Guide 1. Government policies pose dilemmas in a complex modern society because of the conflict between the values of order, equality, and freedom. We can not get more of one with out sacrificing some of the other. (Equality vs. Freedom). 2, These conflicts are inherent because in order to achieve more of one we have to give up more of the other. There is no way of achieving more order without taking away some freedom (ex. Traffic laws), 3. The oldest objective of government is to maintain order 4. Hobbes believes that in a state of nature people will act like predators for their own personal benefit. He believed that the solution to this was installing single ruler that must have unquestioned authority to guarantee the safety of the weak. For him the main purpose of government was to guarantee survival. 5. Locke believed that people must give up some of their freedoms to establish order. He also included liberty and property unlike Hobbes in his list of rights. 6. The dilemma of Order vs. Equality is the modern problem in the USA 7. Social order refers to established patterns of authority in society and to traditional modes of behavior. It is the accepted way of doing things. It prescribes behavior in many areas of life. 8. A political ideology is a consistent set of values and beliefs about the proper purpose and scope of government. 9. Procedural democratic theory: A view of democracy as being embodied in decision- making process that involves universal participation, political equality (one man one vote), majority rule, and responsiveness. Substantive democratic theory: The view that a democracy is embodied in the substance of government policy rather than in the policymaking procedure. Ex. Substantive theorists would reject a law that requires Bible reading in schools because it violates a substantive principle, freedom of religion. Purely procedural democracies are a problem because minority rights can be denied. 10. We do not practice direct democracy because: 1. They are not practical 2. Most people would not get involved 3. Need for expertise 11. Majoritarian: Model of government in which government by the people is interpreted as government by the majority of the people. - The popular election of government officials is the primary mechanism for democratic government.
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- Majoritarian theorists see elections as means of deciding government policies, not just selecting candidates. - Assumes that citizens are knowledgeable about government and politics, that they want to participate in the political process, and that they can make rational decisions in voting for their elected representatives. - Although individual Americans may be limited knowledge of or interest in the government, the American public as a whole still has coherent and stable opinions on major policy questions Pluralist model: Government by the people is taken to mean government by people operating through competing interest groups - shifts the focus of democratic government from the mass electorate to organized groups,
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