Psych230 f05 exam3 - \‘ RC ‘Hx 1 One’s awareness of...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–11. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 6
Image of page 7

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 8
Image of page 9

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 10
Image of page 11
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: \‘ RC ‘Hx/ 1. One’s awareness of one’s own mental strategies is called -Metacognition Study Questions for Exam 3: Psych 230 2.How are sex differences related to aggression? — boys are more overtly aggressive than girls, in part to male sex hormones, or androgens. Androgens contribute to boys’ greater physical activity, which may increase their opportunities for physically aggressive encounters. — girls express hostility through instrumental aggression. 3.An androgynous individual is one who ~Has high levels of masculine and feminine personality characteristics. 4.The average 2—to—6-year old watches how much TV? — 1 V2 to 2 hours per day...? 5. Research on TV watching and aggression has shown: —Exposure to media violence is associated with increased violence and aggression. 6. Characteristics of the concrete operational stage include: - Conservation: decentration; reversibility — Classification ~ Seriation: seriation; transitive inference ~ Spatial Reasoning: mental rotations; cognitive maps 7. What are Jean Chall’s stages of reading development? 1.) Preschool and Kindergarten: -2-6 years of age —Pretends to read —Literacy—related play, storybook reading, and informal literacy experiences through literacy—rich physical environments. 2.) Grades 1 and 2: -6—7 years of age —Masters letter—sound correspondences; sounds out one—syllable words; reads simple stories; reads about 600 words —Direct teaching, through exposure to many types oftexts and the basic rules of decoding written symbols into sounds 3.) Grades 2 and 3: -7—8 years of age —Reads simple stories more fluently; masters basic decoding rules; reads about 3,000 words —Same as above 4‘) Grades 4 to 9: -9—l4 years of age —Reads to learn knowledge, usually without questioning the reading material —Reading and studying; participating in classroom discussion; completing written assignments 5.) Grades 10 to 12: ~15-l7 years of age —Reads more widely, tapping materials with diverse viewpoints -Reading more widely; writing papers 6.) College —1 8 years and older —Reads with a self—defined purpose; decoding and comprehension skills reach a high level of efficiency -Reading even more widely; writing more sophisticated papers 8. Children who have average or above average IQ scores, yet have great difficulty with one or more aspects of learning have: 9. What is the range of normal IQ? What is the mean for the general population? What to l and 2 standard deviations below or above the mean signify? - Range ofnormal IQ: 70 and 130 — Mean for general population: 100 — 1 SD below mean: moderately retarded — 2 SD’s below mean: mildly retarded — 1 SD above mean: moderately gifted - 2 SD’s above mean: mildly gifted 10. Children whose IQ scores are below 55 and 70 are usually referred to as retarded and those who score above L3_0 are often called gifted. l 1. Both the WISC—III and the WPPSI—R measure: —general intelligence and a variety of factors 12. Kinship studies about intelligence reveal that: — About half the differences in IQ among children can be traced to their genetic makeup. 13. The triarchic theory of intelligence is comprised of which three aspects? 1) Analytical Intelligence— information processing skills 2) Creative Intelligence- capacity to solve novel problems 3) Practical Intelligence- application of intellectual skills in everyday situations 14. Spearman’s theory of intelligence proposes: —That there is a generalized IQ and a specific intelligence IQ 15. What is the basis of Howard Gardner’s theory of independent areas of intelligence: - Gardner believes that intelligence has a unique biological basis, a distinct course of development, and different expert, or “end—state” performances. —The0ry of multiple intelligences: intelligence is a distinct set of processing operations that permit individuals to engage in a wide range of culturally valued activities. At least eight independent intelligences. 16. Mainstreaming refers to: - Placement of pupils with learning difficulties in regular classrooms for part of the school day and in special ones for the other part. Distinguished from full inclusion 17. Cartoon TV shows designed specifically for children can be characterized as: — Prosocial 18. Attention—deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 3 to 5 percent of school aged children. 19. 1Q becomes stable around age 6 20. On IQ tests, how do boys and girls perform? 21. What are the characteristics of children with leamed—helplessness? —They attribute their failures, not their successes, to ability —when they do succeed they are likely to conclude that external factors, such as luck, are responsible. - they hold a fixed view of ability— that it cannot be changed. — do not think competence can be improved by trying hard 22. The capacity to imagine what other people are thinking and feeling is called —Theory of Mind 23. Factors influencing how children respond to divorce include: — Child’s age, temperament and sex 24. Characteristics of school age friendships include: — 11 to 13: shared activities, shallow, useful — 14 to 16: Security and loyalty, intense, interdependent — 16+ : more tolerant; sharing of personalities 25. Gender stereotyping refers to: - the process of developing gender roles, or gender—linked preferences and behaviors valued by the larger society 26. Three reasons to study atypical development are: - to develop therapeutic interventions — to better understand developmental processes - to identify underlying functional organization and individual components 27. Down or Williams Syndrome are genetically based syndromes, and children with either generally show mental impairment. How do they differ in their cognitive profiles? 28. F reguent, severgdieting is the strongest predictor of the onset of an eating disorder in adolescence 29. In countries with strict gun regulations, including the prohibition of handguns, the firearm death rate among 15— to l9—year-olds is 16 times lower than in the United States. 30. Studies of adolescent pregnancy prevention suggest that: —Sex education that teaches skills for handling sexual situations, promoting abstinence, providing info about contraceptives can delay sex, increase contraceptive use, and reduce pregnancy. 31. Adrenal androgens play what role in puberty? -lnfluence girls’ height spurt and stimulate growth of underarm and pubic hair. They have little impact on boys. 32. An example of a primary sexual characteristic would be: —Menarche in females and Sperrnarche in males 33. Jenni is anorexic. How will this affect menarche? 3 -gwflev menarche dD‘Cm Vim cCC w W’ thawbm 33333, I Mr; (Qt-h) RD 34. Sex differences in pubertal growth spurt are: — Testosterone leads to muscle growth, body and facial hair, and other male sex characteristics. — Estrogen cause the breasts, uterus, and vagina to mature, her body to take on feminine proportions, and fat to accumulate; also contributes to regulation of the menstrual cycle. 35. The fact that pre—adolescents experience a growth in leg length before a torso growth spurt suggests: — 4pm; Liam; xvi/wailscaudm -’<W32r“ad {>4 mfiaqliq 4: Ci‘mnli‘wunt rcvcr’s _.:;3 36. Whereas and proposed a biological explanation for the notion of upheaval during adolescence, explained it as a result of social or cultural attitudes toward sexuality. 37. The secular trend refers to: —Changes in one generation to the next 38. With respect to brain development during adolescence gray matter decreases whereas white matter and myelination increase. 39. Research on individual differences in pubertal growth indicate: — heredity, nutrition and exercise, geographical location, SES, ethnic group and the secular trend all effect pubertal growth. 40, How culture modifies the experience of adolescence: 41. The first outward sign ofpuberty is the: — Growth Spurt 42. 14—year—old Sam scores lower than any other boy in his class in physical skill assessments. 43. With respect to the timing of puberty, which adolescents are most likely to have positive self-images in adolescence? -Males are more likely to have positive self—images in adolescence. 44. Which of the following represents the typical developmental sequence for pubertal development in North American boys? 45, Recent research suggests that adolescent mood swings are: - strongly related to situational changes 46. In watching a concrete operational child and a formal operational adolescent solve the pendulum problem, what differences would be evident? — adolescents vary one factor at a time and are able to hold all other variables constant. — a concrete operational child experiments unsystematically and cannot separate the effects ’of each variable 47. The ability to think about theories, isolate variables, and actively seek disconfirming evidence: 3‘ formal operational thought 48. Argumentativeness during adolescence seems to be due to the adolescents’ abstract thought 49. Young teenagers are convinced that they are the object of everyone else’s attention and concern. This feature of adolescent thought is called: —Imaginary Audience 50. What is the status of sex differences in cognitive abilities? —Girls perform better on verbal tasks -Boys perform better at mathematics and visuo—spatial tasks 51. Cognitively, compared to school age children, adolescents are better at: — hypothetico—deductive reasoning (?), abstract thought (?) 52. According to information—processing researchers, metacognition is central to the development of abstract thought. 53. What is the effect of relying on test scores for making decisions about children? — it widens group differences in educational attainment 54. The American high school dropout rate is highest for low SES ethnic minority teenagers. 55. Compared to their unemployed counterparts, American high school students who work more than 15 hours a week: — have poorer school attendance - lower grades - less time for extracurricular activities — feel more distance from their parents - report more drug and alcohol use and delinquent acts 56. Research on decision making demonstrates that teenagers are: — not good at planning out all the steps and options of making a decision. 57. Adolescents improved capacity for abstract thought permits them to master irony and sarcasm. 58. The following are important factors that support high achievement during adolescence: —Authoritative parenting - parent—school partnership — peer support - schools 59. The following are steps that can be taken to reduce the likelihood of high school drop outs: — high—quality vocational training — remedial instruction — personalized counseling — address factors in students” lives outside school - extracurricular activities 60. In the formal operational stage, young people develop the capacity for abstract, scientific thinking. 61. The following are key elements of hypothetico—deductive reasoning — Making a general theory of all the possible factors that might affect the outcome —deducing from that theory specific hypothesis (or predictions) about what might happen. 62. While Jim is walking through the school quad, he feels that all the nearby students are staring at his new haircut. J im’s perception that he is the focus of everyone’s attention reflects the adolescent phenomenon of: - imaginary audience 63. With respect to their friends, teenagers’ whose parents usually value achievement: — Pick friends who value the same thing 64. The following are factors that influence an adolescent’s decision to choose a potential vocation: — Personality, family influences, teachers, gender stereotypes, and access to vocational information 65. Janet, a high school student, has a warm and supportive teacher, her parents develop personal relationships with her instructors, and she actively participates in learning activities. In terms of achievement in school, Janet is likely to: —Succeed 66. Which ofthe following is a consequence of abstract thought: ‘ — Argumentativeness — Self—Consciousness and self-focusing - idealism and criticism - planning and decision making 67. According to Erickson, the psychological conflict of adolescence is: - Identity vs. Identity confusion 68. Current theorists believe that the typical adolescent’s approach to forming a mature identity starts with exploration and is then followed by commitment. 69. Suzanne questions her parents’ religious beliefs and has begun to Visit other churches to find out about alternatives. What identity status characterizes Suzanne? 70. For teenagers who are members of minority groups, what is the function of a sense of ethnic—group membership? — A high self—esteem 71. According to Kohlberg, which is the most important factor in determining the maturity of responses to moral dilemmas? — the way an individual reasons about a dilemma 72. Which of the following is true about the impact of peer interaction on moral reasoning? - Adolescents who report more close friendships, who more often participate in conversations with their friends, and whom classmates view as leaders score higher in moral reasoning. 73. Which of the following is true about peer conformity? — Adolescents feel greatest pressure to conform to the most obvious aspects of the peer culture— dress, grooming, and participation in social activities. 74. Jason has decided to go to law school simply because his father and his grandfather are lawyers. Jason did not explore alternatives. According to Marcia, Jason’s identity status is: — identity foreclosure 75. Kelly has reached adolescence and experiences difficulty having faith in ideals such as truth, freedom, and honesty. According to Erikson, Kelly has: 76. One of the most powerful predictors of moral reasoning is: — Years of schooling completed 77. Identity has been described as an explicit theory of oneself as a(n): -rational agent 78. The authoritative parenting style is most effective in supporting cognitive and social development in adolescence. 79. Residence hall living is one of the most consistent predictors of cognitive development among college students. 80. Characteristics of Schaie’s postformal thought are: — less abstract - less absolute - adaptive to the world’s inconsistencies - allows for synthesizing and integrating conflicting factors 81. Unlike development during childhood which is tightly correlated with age, adult development is more influenced by social factors. This is related to the Neugarten’s notion of the social clock. 82. Longitudinal research on adult cognition shows that: — Vocabulary, analogies and comprehension increased from childhood well into adulthood. There is an overall increase in intellectual abilities. 83. Havighurst suggested a list of goals for adulthood; they included the following — Select a mate — learn to live with a mate — start a family — manage a home — adopt an occupation - fulfill civic responsibility — find a congenial social group 84. In finding a mate, opposites attract and make for the most successful couples T F 85. Midolescence refers to: — A Mid—life crisis 86. The average age for a first marriage in 1950 was for women and for men; in 2002 it was for women and for men. 87. Cattell’s theory posits two aspects of intelligence fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence. Fluid intelligence declines with age whereas crystallized intelligence increases with age. 88. When the Normans conquered the English, many French words became part of the English language, and they are synonyms with their German based counterpart, for example, naked is to nude as: 89. If you were introduced to an individual who was moderately retarded, yet had very good language skills and was extremely friendly, you might infer that this person had: — Williams Syndrome 90. With respect to college and marriage, research on the period of emerging adulthood has revealed that: 91. Friedrich and Stein’s study on TV watching demonstrated: - Neutral: no change - Aggressive: Less able to tolerate delay, impulsive, increased aggression — Prosocial: Persistent, obeyed rules, better tolerated delay 92. Within postforrnal thought, thinking is a crucial development, a development that states truth has a nature. 94. How does culture play a role as to when an individual’s adulthood emerges? — Some cultures have Rights of Passage and better preparation, some grant more autonomy and a better understanding of adolescents 95. Which aspects of life are stable and which are likely to experience changes during aduhhood? 96.Side effects of television viewing are: — reduced interaction — decreased attention span — raised expectations - desensitization to violence 97. Erickson’s stages of intimacy_vs. isolation, generativity vs. stagnation, integrity vs. degpair correlate with adulthood. 98.During a conservation—of—mass problem, Tom can mentally reverse the steps of the task in which a clay ball was smashed. This example demonstrates that Tom is capable of: Reversibility 99.ln terms of spending money for public school education (in dollars per child per year), California is ranked out of the 50 states. lOO.Which ofthe following would most likely be a common fear of or anxiety ofa school—aged child? - academic failure -separation from parents — parents’ health — physical injuries — the possibility of dying - peer rejection 101 .Which of the following is a strong predictor of emergent literacy and later reading and spelling achievement? —interest in print - general intelligence - good perceptual skills — parental interests in children’s reading - parents who read 102.Which of the following are characteristics of friendship in early childhood? — activity— based - reinforcing — offer social support 103.The effects oftelevision can be modulated by. . -Limiting TV viewing and computer use — Monitoring TV Viewing and computer use and encouraging age appropriate content — Watch with your child and discuss the content of TV shows — Do not use TV as a reinforcer or treat - Link and supplement TV with other experiences ...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern