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Test_Questions_1 - INVITATION TO MANAGEMENT 1 Management is...

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INVITATION TO MANAGEMENT 1. Management is defined as the process of achieving desired results though the efficient utilization of human and material resources (Bedeian, 1993). 2. Two main concerns for management are efficiency and effectiveness. 3. Effectiveness is concerned with doing the right thing the right way at the right time for goal attainment (ends). Efficiency is concerned with getting more bang for the buck (means). 4. Effectiveness and efficiency are related in that it is much easier to be effective if one disregards efficiency. 5. An important resource for a manager is human resources. 6. Management is considered a science because we must develop theories of managing, test theories empirically using the scientific method, and refine, reformulate, or discard those theories based upon the results of these studies. It is also considered an art because there are many roads to managerial success or many widely different styles of management that can be successful. 7. Management became important as a result of the Industrial Revolution because the labor was divided in these factories, the sill level of the employees decreased as a result, and these employees and their efforts needed to be supervised and coordinated to get goods produced causing the need for management. Management is still important today because it is the key to the efficient accomplishment of organizational and societal objectives. 8. The basic change in the Industrial Revolution was the transfer of skills from the craftsmen to the machines; therefore factories became more common. 9. There was an increase in productivity brought on by machinery and division of labor to the transformation process, so prices dropped and demand grew causing the rise of modern capitalism. 10. According to Peter F. Drucker, the pivotal event of our time was the switch from owner/ manager to professional manager. 11. Most businesses fail because 12. First line managers are the middlemen caught between labor and “management”. They are the only managers not to manage other managers. Their primary objective is to ensure that the plans developed by top management are fulfilled by their operating employees. Examples include supervisor and foreman.
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13. Middle managers manage other managers. The integrate the activities of different work groups so that they operate in harmony and then act as interpreters and transform top management directives into first-line management. They are also communication channels between different levels of management. Examples include plant manager and division head. 14. Corporate downsizing is when a company adopts a “lean and mean” philosophy, an efficiency orientation. Companies eliminate layers of management asking the retained managers to do more which results in many middle level management jobs being eliminated and replaced by new information technologies or farmed to outside consulting firms. (THIS ONE WILL DEFINITELY BE ON THE TEST, A LOT OF QUESTIONS ABOUT IT)s 15. Top managers determine the form of the organization and define its overall character,
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