Topic Ouline What is Philosophy? Branches of Philosophy What is Logic? Procedure of Correct Thinking Importance of Logic
PHILOSOPY.. • The ancient definition is the traditional con ept of philosophy which comes from the Greek terms “philos” meaning “love” and “sophia” means “wisdom” or“knowledge”. • Therefore, philosophy is ordinarily and etymologically construed as the love for wisdom or knowledge. • This nominal definition originated from Phythagoras who thought of man, among others, as a lover of wisdom.
Ethics : the study of standards of right or wrong. Philosophy of Man : a study of a nature of man as a person, his origin and des- tiny. Epistemology : the science dealing with human knowledge, the focus of which is to know the truth. .
Metaphysics : addresses the fundamentals of existence or reality such as the ex- istence and nature of God, immortal- ity of soul, etc. Aesthetics : a philosophical inquiry of the beautiful. Social Philosophy: the study of the socio- economic-political dimensions of human beings. .
Theodicy: study a Supreme Being and His relation to His creatures. Political Philosophy: an inquiry into the ultimate foundation of the state, the ideal form of government, and its basic powers. Logic: the science and art of correct thinking .
Etymologically, logic comes from the Greek word “Logos” which means study, or “Logia” argument, or “Logike” act of reasoning. Generally, Logic is understood as the science and art of correct thinking (Cruz, 1995). .
Logic is a science because it is certain and systematized knowledge of the principles governing correct thinking. It investigates, demonstrates or explains the laws of cor- rect thinking.
Art can be viewed as mastery of a cer- tain skill or talent. through which peo- ple express themselves in dance, music, song, painting, sculp- ture, pottery, argument, debate, etc. Logic, therefore, is an art because it harness the skill teaches how to make a good argument. .
It is “correct” when it conforms to a pattern or to rules Example: A ruler is 12-inch long Pres. GMA is a ruler Therefore, Pres. GMA is 12- inch long -THINKING is a mental process – in- volves analysis, definition, classifi- cation, comparison and con- trasts, etc. - It guides or directs man to form cor- rect ideas
FORMAL LOGIC -concerned with the aspect of form which has something to do with the correctness or sequence or the following of rules Ex. All men are mortal but Pedro is a man therefore Pedro is mortal
MATERIAL LOGIC -concerned with the aspect of subject matter or content or truth of the ar- gument Example: A ruler is 12-inch long Pres. Pres. Noy is a ruler Therefore, Pres. Noy is 12-inch long KINDS Deductive Logic: from more to less Inductive Logic: implies a sense of
- Fall '14
- Logic, Proposition, propositions, Syllogism, Categorical proposition, Traditional logic