Kinesiology_Final_Prep

Kinesiology_Final_Prep - Kinesiology Final Prep...

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Kinesiology Final Prep Cardiovascular System Q = HR x SV (Cardiac Output = Heart Rate x Stroke Volume) - Stroke Volume: Is the amount of blood that is ejected by the ventricles. Is expressed in mL/beat (1000 mL = 1 Liter). At Rest - Non-Athlete: 5 Liters/min = 80 Beats/min x 62 mL/Beat - Endurance Athlete: 5 Liters/min = 80 Beats/min x 100 mL/Beat - Endurance athletes have thicker ventricular walls which tell us that there is a big cardiac adjustment to exercise. - The resting heart for an endurance athlete is lower than it is for a non-athlete. At Max - Non-Athlete: 16-18 Liters/min = 200 Beats/min x 75-90 mL/Beat - Endurance Athlete: 30-40 Liters/min = 200 Beats/min x 150+ mL/Beat - During max exercise, a non-athlete can go up to 16-18 Liters/min in cardiac output. Trained athletes can get their stroke volume up really high, and thus increasing their cardiac output. - For the same amount of work, the heart rate of the trained athlete will be lower than that of the non-athlete. - For the same amount of work, the trained athlete will have a higher stroke volume. - For the same workload, the cardiac output between the trained and non-trained athletes will be the same. The trained athletes cardiac output will only go higher after a certain point. Arterio-Venous Oxygen Difference vs. Cardiac Output - As the Arterio-Venous Oxygen difference decreases, Cardiac Output increases.
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- A cardiac patient is able to extract more oxygen and their Arterio-Venous Oxygen difference is higher as a result. This makes up of their low Cardiac Output. Blood Pressure Pressure = Flow x Resistance - In a closed system, pressure is a product of flow and resistance. - Flow: Is represented by Cardiac Output. - Resistance: Is represented by the viscosity of the blood and the diameter of the blood vessel. - The diameter of the blood vessels (resistance) is the cause of high blood pressure. This can be caused by an increase in epinephrine. - High blood pressure is the cause of many heart diseases. - Lowest Blood Pressure: In the Supine Position (lying down). - Highest Blood Pressure: When a person is Standing Up. This is because the pressure has to counteract the force of gravity to pump blood back up. - From Supine to Standing: Mainly Systolic Blood Pressure will increase. If there is a decrease, it may indicate Orthostatic Hypotension. A person with Orthostatic Hypotension becomes lightheaded because there is a decrease in blood flow to the brain. - During weight training, Blood Pressure increases as the resistance from the contraction of the vessels increases. - The Valsalva Maneuver: Lifting a weight to a certain point, taking a deep breath and holding it in, and then completing the lift. This makes it easier to lift the weight, but it also increases Blood Pressure very high. Systolic Blood Pressure
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Kinesiology_Final_Prep - Kinesiology Final Prep...

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