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History 1730 October 5, 2016 AGrubb Page 1of 8bb Terms on Board Outliers Saint-Simon Robert Owen Charles Fourier Jeremy Bentham William Cobbett 1.Conservatism –Burke, Metternich 2.Liberalism –Doctrinaires 3.Nationalism –Herder, Mazzini 4.Socialism –Marx 5.Revolutionism, radicalism ***************SBS/Don’tread: Chapters 2 and 10****************** Ok I want to talk about the conflict of ideology–I want to remind you again not to read chapters 2 and 10 but read the other chapters but please read all the other chapters. The introduction isvery helpful. Today we want to look at the ‘isms’, the conflicts of ideology after the French Revolution. We talked about the defeat and the fall of Napoleon after the Battle of Waterloo. He was exiled to St. Helena and he did not escape this time. Obviously the European map had to be drawn again. The French Empire collapsed and we will talk more about the concert of Europe and the settlement of Vienna in 1815. Today I want to talk about the ‘isms’ that come out of this period which was very much present in the 19thCentury. 1815-1848- It is called the restoration, it is a restoration of conservative forces both internationally and within states but it is not a period without troubles, without upheavals here. It is because of the ideology that date back to the American and the French revolution and of course some of the ideas of the enlightenment. The French revolution may have failed in France. But it did succeed in sweeping away the old regime. The society maintained being traditional. In the early 19thcentury there was this debate about the reorganization of Europe. There were all kinds of people thinking about how to reorganize Europe with many ideas.
History 1730 October 5, 2016 AGrubb Page 2of 8bb There was a political vacuum with tremendous upheaval with the reorganization of Europe. The construction of the nation states (2 of the great themes of this century) and the other is another ‘ism’ –to transform Europe profoundly and increased their power. Before the societies were agricultural societies. We will talk about the other industrial revolution later. It consolidates the first industrial revolution 1850-1914. I want to talk about some of these ideas. I want to talk about the outliers that proposed a plan for the reorganization of Europe. I will start with Jeremy Bentham –18thcentury philosopher. He was opposed to the enlightenment. He thought everyone else’sideas were wrong and he invented what you call the calculus of happiness - “the Greater Happiness for the Great number”. He had great influence on the conservative and the liberals (Wigs) and others. He was like how can things be better. He knew that that was not possible. Several things were not working like the Parliament. The poor houses working the answer was no. Was the prison system working –no. So he developed the greater happiness of the greatest number –prolific calculus.