Unformatted text preview: W- PHIL 4l 1: Second Examination 1. (a) What was the motivation for Ionian Presocratic philosophy? (b) What was the motivation for Pythagorian philosophy
Argue that these two conceptions of philosophy are compatible. 2 Consider the following two problems: Problem #1: Socrates examines the views his fellow citizens have about virtue, and refutes them. Socrates claims to be on a
mission from the god Apollo to get his fellow citizens to care about virtue. How does refuting their views about virtue help
them to care about virtue? Problem #2: Socrates clearly leads people out of their ignorance. Socrates claims not to be a teacher. How is this possible?
(a) Argue for a solution to Problem #1. (b) Argue for a solution to Problem #2.
3. State Plato’s conception of truth. Consider the following premises: P1: Truth is identical with Being.
P2: Truth is a relation ultimately existing only between a perceiver and the sensations had by that perceiver. (a) Using Plato’s concept of truth, argue either for or against P1. (b) Using Plato’s concept of truth, argue either for or against P2. 4. (a) State, and explain using examples, two of the ways in which we might interpret Heraclitus’ claim that everything changes. (b)
State Plato’s concept of knowledge. (0) Based on your understanding of Plato’s divided line simile, state the different cognitive
powers of the human soul and their corresponding objects. (d) Choose one of the interpretations of Heraclitus’ claim presented in part
(a) of this question and, using Plato’s concept of knowledge and his account of human cognitive powers, argue that knowledge is
impossible if Heraclitus’ claim (so interpreted) is true. 5. (a) What is an enumerative deﬁnition? (b) What is an essential definition? (c) State Plato’s Method of Dialectic, stating and
explaining each of the methods it includes. ((1) State and explain the three ontological categories acknowledged by Plato. 6. Consider the following premises: P1: If the content of our ideas corresponds with sensible objects, then the content of our ideas changes over time. / P2: If each of the many sensible human beings gets a share of the intelligible Form of being human, then either (a) each
sensible human being possesses the whole intelligible Form of being human or (b) each sensible human being
possesses part of the intelligible Form of being human. P3: If the intelligible Form of a human being is separate from itself, then it fails to be identical with itself. (a) Argue against P1. (b) Argue against P2. (c) Argue against P3. 7. (a) Explain Aristotle’s distinctions between substances and accidents and between particulars and universals.ﬂ) What is the
difference between a natural object and an artiﬁcial object, according to Aristotle? (c) What are the four kinds of causes, according to
Aristotle? (d) Analyze yourself in terms of the four causes. (e) What are the four kinds of change, according to Aristotle? (0 Explain
each kind of change in terms of the four causes. 8. (a) How are words, concepts and things in the world related, according to Aristotle? (b) How do we acquire the first principles of
demonstrative science, according to Aristotle? (c) Compare and contrast how Pythagoras, Plato, and Aristotle answer the following
question: What is wisdom, and with what sorts of causes and principles is wisdom concerned? 9. Consider the following set of premises: #1: No substance is divisible into parts. #2: All deﬁnitions are divisible into parts. #3: Every deﬁnition deﬁnes some
substance. #4: Every deﬁnition has the same compositional structure as that which it deﬁnes. (a) Explain why these premises imply that there can be no deﬁnition of a substance. (b) Suppose that there can be no deﬁnition of a
substance. Why is this a problem for Aristotle’s conception of philosophy? 10. (a) States Aristotle’s general deﬁnition of a soul. (b) Explain how this general deﬁnition applies to a common plant or animal of
your choosing. (c) Explain why, given Aristotle’s conception, it makes no sense to fear that the soul of an organism 0 can survive the
death of 0. ...
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- Spring '06