CCGL16L5s - 1 Biological Influences on Gender Puberty intensifies the sexual aspects of adolescents gender attitudes and behavior Sexual behavior is

CCGL16L5s - 1 Biological Influences on Gender Puberty...

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1 CCGL9007 YOUTH IN A GLOBAL WORLD Lecture Five Gender and sexuality Biological Influences on Gender box5 Puberty intensifies the sexual aspects of adolescents’ gender attitudes and behavior box5 Sexual behavior is related to hormonal changes during puberty, at least for boys Biological Influences on Gender box2 Freud and Erikson – Anatomy is destiny box2 Critics stress that experience is not given enough credit and that females and males are more free to choose their gender roles than Freud and Erikson allow Biological Influences on Gender box2 Evolutionary psychologists argue that primarily because of their differing roles in reproduction , males and females faced different pressures in primeval environments when the human species was evolving (Geary, 2010)
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Social Influences on Gender box2 Psychological gender differences are due mainly to social experiences box2 Alice Eagly (2001, 2010) proposed social role theory box5 Gender differences mainly result from the contrasting roles of females and males square6 In most cultures around the world, females have less power and status than males have, and they control fewer resources (UNICEF, 2011) square6 As women adapted to roles with less power and less status in society, they showed more cooperative, less dominant profiles than men (Eagly, 2010) Social Influences on Gender box2 Parents box5 By their action and example, parents influence their children’s and adolescents’ gender development (Maccoby, 2007) box5 Parents allow boys more independence than girls box5 Parents may also have different achievement expectations for their adolescent sons and daughters, especially in academic areas such as math and science (Leaper & Friedman, 2007) box5 Mothers and fathers also often interact differently with their sons and daughters (Bronstein, 2006) Social Influences on Gender box2 The social cognitive theory of gender emphasizes that children’s and adolescents’ gender development is influenced by: box5 Their observation and imitation of others’ gender behavior box5 The rewards and punishments they experience for gender- appropriate and gender-inappropriate behavior Social Influences on Gender box2 Siblings box5 Play a role in gender socialization (Galambos, Berenbaum, & McHale, 2009) box2 Peers box5 Parents provide the first models of gender behavior, but before long peers also are responding to and modeling masculine and feminine behavior (Rubin & others, 2011) box5 Adolescents spend increasing amounts of time with peers (Brown & others, 2008)
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Social Influences on Gender box5 Peer approval or disapproval is a powerful influence on gender attitudes and behavior (Prinstein & Dodge, 2010) Social Influences on Gender box2 Schools and teachers box5 There are concerns that schools and teachers have biases against both boys and girls (Arms, Bickett, & Graf, 2008) box5 Same-sex or co-ed schools?
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