Ch08 - Chapter 8 EUROPE LEARNING OBJECTIVES: - This chapter...

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Chapter 8 EUROPE LEARNING OBJECTIVES: - This chapter introduces Europe, one of the world’s most densely settled modern regions, with a population of more than half a billion people - An important objective of this chapter is to understand the dynamics of nationalism that threw the region into armed conflict twice during the 1900s, and many times before that. - In addition, this chapter sheds light on the changing dynamics that have resulted in the recent formation of the European Union and the evolution of a common currency, the euro. - At the conclusion of this chapter, the student should be familiar with the physical, demographic, cultural, political, and economic characteristics of North America. - In addition, the student should understand the following concepts and models: · Balkanization · Cold War · Command economy · European Union · Feudalism · Privatization · Secularization --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- CHAPTER OUTLINE I. Introduction Europe is one of the most diverse places on Earth. In an area smaller than North America, Europe has a variety of climates, landforms, and agricultural output. This region has 38 countries, with many different languages and cultures. Because of these differences, Europe has a long history of warfare, mostly occurring along nationalist lines. Europe is now globalizing, with the formation of a supranational political and economic entity, the European Union (EU). Still, national identity has led to the dissolution of countries in eastern Europe, most notably Yugoslavia. Europe has had a large impact on the world. It is the cradle of Western civilization and the Industrial Revolution. European countries colonized countries in every region of the world. II. Environmental Geography: Human Transformation of a Diverse Landscape A. Introduction 1. Europe’s environmental diversity is great, despite its small land area 2. Four factors explain this diversity: (1) complex geology with both newest and oldest landscape types; (2) Europe’s latitudinal extent (distance from equator), from arctic to Mediterranean subtropics; (3) modification of latitudinal controls by interaction of land masses and large bodies of water (Atlantic Ocean, Black, Baltic, and Mediterranean seas); (4) thousands of years of humans living in Europe has fundamentally changed its landscape B. Environmental Issues, Local and Global, East and West (Fig. 8.4) 102
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1. Europe’s long history of agriculture, resource extraction, industrial manufacturing, and urbanization created serious environmental problems (air and water pollution, acid rain) 2. European Union has addressed environmental issues since 1970s with successful regional solutions; western Europe has one of world’s “greenest” (best) environments 3. European voters support environmental legislation in Europe and globally, including reduction of greenhouse gases 4. Eastern Europe, under Soviet- style communist economic system
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Ch08 - Chapter 8 EUROPE LEARNING OBJECTIVES: - This chapter...

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