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Final Exam Review-1 (Autosaved)

Final Exam Review-1 (Autosaved) - MIC 205 Review for...

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MIC 205 - Review for Comprehensive portion of Final Exam Know the main characteristics of organisms of each Kingdom Protista- unicellular eukaryotes Monera- prokaryotic bacteria Fungi- unicellular or muilticellular yeasts and molds Animalia- multicellular heterotrophs Plantae- multicellular autotrophs Know the characteristics of bacteria; gram+/- Gram+: Thick peptidoglycan layer Stain purple Gram- Thin peptidoglycan layer plus outer membrane Stain red or pink Know the characteristics of viruses- no metabolism, no growth, no cellular structure. Know the bacterial shapes and arrangements Shapes: Coccus- spherical Bacillus- rod Spiral Vibrio-comma shaped Spirillum- flexible wavy-shaped Spirochete- corkscrew shaped Coccobacillus- oval shaped Arrangements: Cocci: Diplo-pairs Strepto-chains Tetrads-four in a cube Sarcinae- cube of eight Staphylo-grape-like clusters Bacillus: Diplo-2 end to end Strepto-chains What are bacterial spores, and why are they sometimes dangerous?- They are dormant hardened forms of Gram+ bacteria that are resistant to heat, drying, acids, bases, disinfectants, and even radiation Know the organelles of eukaryotic cells and their functions Nucleus- largest cellular organelle, stores genetic info Ribosomes-protein synthesis Smooth ER- lipid metabolism, cholesterol and steroid hormone synthesis Golgi body- modifies, sorts, ships protein-filled vesicles Vacuoles- membrane enclosed space in cytoplasm for storage Mitochondria- perform cellular respiration Chloroplasts- perform photosynthesis
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What are the major targets for action of antimicrobials? (ie membranes) Cell walls of microbes Know the characteristics of enzymes, and what types of things can affect their actions What is “microbial growth”, and what happens in each phase of a growth curve? - microbial growth = increase in number of cells, not size. Lag Phase- organisms do not increase in number, but are metabolically active Log phase- exponential growth Stationary phase- new cells are produced at same rate old ones are dying Death phase- cells die at exponential rate What are the major types of metabolism? Autotrophs-use carbon dioxide as carbon source Photoautotrophs- obtain energy from light Chemoautotrophs- obtain energy by oxidizing simple inorganic substances Heterotrophs- use organic molecules that are already made as carbon source Photoheterotrophs- obtain chemical energy from light Chemoheterotrophs- obtain chemical energy from organic compounds Know how viruses can be grown in a lab- using cell tissue culture, viruses can be cultured in living animals, embryonic chicken eggs, or cells taken from a human or other animal. Primary cultures, established cell lines, and tumor cell lines are used for growing viruses. Know the difference between a lytic and lysogenic phage life cycle-
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Final Exam Review-1 (Autosaved) - MIC 205 Review for...

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