History 30 study

History 30 study - Chapter 14 IDs 1) Tetzel- Tetzel was a...

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Chapter 14 IDs 1) Tetzel- Tetzel was a friar who sold indulgences near Wittenburg in 1517. Luther was incensed by Tetzel’s crude manner and exploitation of people’s ignorance and misuse of their money. Luther launched his attack on Tetzel and the selling of indulgences in his 95 theses. 2) Elizabethan Compromise (Middle Way)- Queen Elizabeth I made the Anglican church a midway between Protestantism and Catholicism in an attempt to avoid warfare. Queen Elizabeth upset the Puritans and the Pope who thought she was an illegitimate queen and that the Catholics in England should rebel. 3) Devotion moderna- religious movement by the Brethren of the common life that was inspired by humanism and mysticism. The brethren expressed their practical piety by dedicating their lives to the service of the entire community. Their teachings trained scholars and humanists, including Erasmus and several critics of the church. 4) Fredrick of Saxony- the elector of Saxony, he was a powerful man in international politics- one of seven lay and ecclesial princes who chose the Holy Roman Emperor Luther. Appealed to him for support when he realized his life might be in danger and wanted Fredrick to be his protector. Fredrick was the prince in Luther’s district and was looked at as a possible candidate for the Holy Roman Emperor in 1519. 5) Zwingli- preached faith and good works and the Bible as key to the divine will in law in the Swiss city Zurich. Sought an alternative to the doctrine of substantiation like Luther. Zwingli changed communion service by making it a commemoration of the Last Supper. He and Luther quarreled also on the interpretation of the Bible once it was free to read. His teachings laid the foundation for a reformation in Switzerland and major reform movement: Calvinism. 6) St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre- 1572 Catholics in France, urged by the Queen Mother, Catherine de Medicism Murdered Protestant wedding guests at the wedding of a Protestant leader into the royal family. During the next week, there was a popular uprising and thousands of Protestants were murdered in the streets. In response to this the Pope had a mass celebrating this “Catholic victory”. This civil war was one of the most brutal religious wars in the history of Europe. 7) Loyola- pious Spanish reformer- sought to create a new religious order, fusing the intellectual excellence of humanism w/ a reformed Catholicism that would appeal to powerful political and economic groups. He founded the Society of Jesus- the order of Jesuits in 1534 – which was the backbone of the Catholic Reformation. Characterized by 3 unusual features: 1) took a special oath of obedience to the pope, bound them to support the papacy and its programs. 2) Rejected traditional monastic ideal of life, service in the world instead of life of contemplation 3) especially committed to Christian education of youth and to missionary work amongst heretic and pagans. Vanguard of RC Church’s effort to resist Protestant “errors” and hasten restoration of Catholicism.
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This note was uploaded on 05/07/2008 for the course HI HI taught by Professor Coury during the Spring '08 term at Fairfield.

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History 30 study - Chapter 14 IDs 1) Tetzel- Tetzel was a...

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