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Unformatted text preview: BIO 1306.05 SPRING 2008 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE What are the primary differences between mitosis and meiosis? How does prokaryotic cell division differ from that of eukaryotes? What molecules regulate the S phase of the cell cycle? How many histones comprise a nucleosome? During what phases of the cell cycle does DNA replication occur? What are cyclin and cdk? Why are they important in the cell cycle? How many cells and how much DNA is present after a mitotic cell division? What are homologous chromosomes? What is the difference between the G1 and G2 phase of meiosis? When do sister chromatids separate during meiosis? How does genetic material translocate between homologous chromosomes? When does this happen? How many alleles can exist for a given gene? Where are genes located on a chromosome? Do these locations differ among chromosomes that carry the same gene? How are alleles of the same gene segregated during cell division? What is a test cross? What information can be gained about a genotype through test crossing? What is a true-breeding plant? What is incomplete dominance? How is incomplete dominance expressed phenotypically when compared to complete dominance for the same pair of alleles? Think pink. What is penetrance? How does penetrance relate to the probability of certain traits being expressed in offspring? Assuming independent assortment, how do you compute the probability of a particular phenotype being observed based on two different genes (traits)? What is the law of independent assortment, and why is it significant to Mendelian genetics? Who is this Mendel guy, anyway? What is pleiotropy? What does hemizygous mean? How are some traits linked? Why would frequencies of linked traits in genetic crosses differ from frequencies of traits that are not linked? Do all plants produce male and female gametes? What is the single, ultimate factor that makes it predictable that 50% of all babies born will be male? What makes a trait a sex-linked trait? What genetically determines sex in humans? Do males carry a lot of genes on the Y chromosome? Why are most sex-linked traits determined by the female? How does this affect the genotype and phenotype of offspring? What are genetic mutations? Are they common? How did Mendel conduct his experiments with pea plants? What ensured that his plants did not self pollinate? Heterozygous vs. homozygous. Dominant vs. recessive inheritance (also know and understand the pedigrees) Whos your daddy? Codominance and blood types. Know the Labrador example. Got epistasis?...
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