Test 2 Review - TEST 2 Review Terms to know 1 Cantus firmus...

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TEST 2 Review Terms to know 1. Cantus firmus 固定旋律 The composers would often use a fixed melody ( cantus firmus ) as the basis for elaborate ornamentation in other voices. Triple meter was favored, because it symbolized the perfection of the Trinity. 2. Continuous Imitation P88 Polyphony in works of this era were often based on the principle of imitation―where musical ideas are exchanged 交换 between vocal lines that are closely knit in 织进 “sweet” sounding harmonies such as thirds and sixths 六度音程 , as opposed to the open fifths 五度 and octaves 八度 of medieval times. 3 Mass (and its movements ) Composers in the Renaissance concentrated their musical settings 音乐 背景 on the Ordinary 常规弥撒 or fixed portion of the mass that was sung daily five movements: Kyrie 垂怜经,慈悲经 a prayer for mercy that dates from the early centuries of Christianity, as its Greek text attests. Gloria joyful hymn of praise Credo 信条,教义 is the confession of faith and the longest of the Mass texts Sanctus ( 作弥撒时以 圣哉,圣哉,圣哉 开始的 ) 赞美诗 a song of praise that concludes with "Hosanna in the highest"
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Agnus Dei 羔羊经 sung three times, with different words for its conclusion. See order and lyrics in book. Originally these movements were sung in Latin but now are recited or sung in the vernacular (the language of the country) Early polyphonic settings of the mass were often based on a fragment of Gregorian chant which became the fixed voice (cantus firmus) that was the foundation of the work. Sometimes popular songs were used as a basis for a Mass. Settings of the Mass often were based on fixed voice or cantus firmus. 4. St. Mark’s Venice 圣马可教堂 p110 文艺复兴到巴洛克,重要跳板 --The new homophonic style heard in Venice. The church is famous for its well-endowed musical establishment, which included an impressive lineup 阵容 of choirmasters 唱诗班指挥 and organists 凤琴演奏者 The Venice style, marked by the use of multiple choirs of voices and instruments, influenced composers all over Europe but reached its high point in the works of Giovanni Gabrieli 5. Monody 挽歌,(单调的声音) P118 Monody : New style featuring solo song with instrumental accompaniment. One of the great changes in style between the Renaissance and Baroque era was the shift in texture from polyphony, which consists of several independent melodic parts, to monody — a texture in which a single melody stands out 突出 . This monodic style, which they called the “expressive style,” was developed by a group of Florentine artists, writers. and musicians known as the Camerata. From this style, opera was developed.
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  • Fall '09
  • Baroque music, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, cantus firmus, J. S. Bach

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