Chapter 30 IKE & JFK(1) - The Great Billy Joel...

This preview shows page 1 - 6 out of 21 pages.

The Great Billy JoelsTRAvIM
Chapter 30 The Eisenhower & Kennedy Administrations (1953-1963)
I) Presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower (Ike)1. Election of 1952—Eisenhower vs. Adlai Stevenson. Ike carries 39 states and wins the election overwhelmingly despite a scandal over campaign funds concerning his running mate Richard M. Nixon. The Republicans also took control of the House of Representatives & the US Senate.2. Moderation was the key for the Eisenhower Administration. Major goal was to restore calm and tranquility to a divided nation. Ike delegated authority and took a passive role in setting domestic policy relying on Congress to lead in that area.3. In the 1954 midterm elections the Democratic party took control of both Houses of Congress thus leaving Ike to depend on Speaker of the House Sam Rayburn and Senate Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson for legislative leadership. Both are Texans.
4. Domestically Ike extended Social Security, raised minimum wage to $1 per hour, and most importantly created the Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare. He appointed Oveta Culp Hobby as HEW’s first secretary. She became the 1stfemale appointed to a cabinet position by a Republican Administration.5. Ike’s sole significant achievement legislatively was passage of the Federal Highway Act of 1956 that provided funding for a 41,000 mile interstate highway system throughout the continental US. Modeled after the German Autobahn this justified on the grounds of national defense.
II) Start of Civil Rights Movement1) President Eisenhower appointed California Governor Earl Warren Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in 1953 in what Ike would say was the biggest damn-fool mistake I ever made. Legally Civil Rights started with Brown vs. the School Board of Topeka, Kansas (1954) a landmark decision that overturned Plessey vs. Ferguson (separate but equal) and established a new precedent in the area of Civil Rights. The case was argued for the NAACP by attorney Thurgood Marshall. Initially, Ike moved slowly following the court’s directive, “with all deliberate speed”. The test case for this decision came at Little Rock Central High School when nine black children attempted to integrate the all-white high school. Ike federalized the Arkansas National Guard to provide protection for these children.“We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of "separate but equal" has no place.

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture