Chapter 21 World War I - The World at War Part I Clockwise...

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The World at War Part IClockwise from top: Trenches on the Western Front; a British Mark IV tank crossing a trench; Royal Navy battleship HMS Irresistiblesinking after striking a mine at the Battle of the Dardanelles; a Vickers machine gun crew with gas masks, and German Albatros D.III biplanes
Woodrow WilsonArmenian Holocaust 1915-1920
Archduke Franz FerdinandGavrilo Princip Downtown Sarajevo at nightBosnia and Herzegovina surrounding Sarajevo (dark blue, center)
II) Start of War in 1914 U.S. position = NeutralityAt the start of the war America’s position was one of neutrality. President Woodrow Wilson’s neutral position was undercut by three realities:1. Ethnic groups in the United States took sides in this conflict with an overwhelming % siding with the Triple Entente.2. American Economic Links to the Triple Entente. In 1914 US exports to England and France totaled $753 million. By 1916, US exports to England & France grew to $2.75 billion. In 1914 US exports to Germany totaled $345 million. By 1916, US exports to Germany totaled $29 million. During that same two year period US loans to England & France equaled $2.3 billion while US loans to Germany equaled $27 million.3. Pro-Triple Entente in Wilson’s Cabinet. Wilson’s advisors believed that traditional American values in international affairs, such as self-determination, free marketplace etc., stood a better chance of survival on the world scene if the Allies were victorious.
Church in Haxby, England Memorial to World War I Lives Lost in Battle
III) US Steps Towards War1. Sinking of HMS Lusitania—British passenger liner sunk by German U-Boats off of Kinsale, Ireland killing 1,198 passengers including 128 Americans. Ship was sunk after Germany had put full page ad in New York Times warning passengers not to travel on belligerent ships headed into the war zone. President Wilson sent a stern warning to Germany about unrestricted submarine warfare & demanded a German apology. Result of this was that Wilson’s Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan the only member of the cabinet that was neutral resigned.
2. Sinking of the Sussex & Arabic—Two British vessels were sunk by German U-Boats in the British Channel. Result: Germany issued the Sussex Pledge saying that they would not attack passenger vessels without prior warning.3. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare: was resumed by Germany in 1917. Result: President Wilson broke off diplomatic relations with Germany.

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