Geol303 f06 midterm2

Geol303 f06 midterm2 - Natural Disasters: Mid—term 2...

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Unformatted text preview: Natural Disasters: Mid—term 2 November 15, 2006 Geology 303: Section 10 Lecturer: Jonathan Goodmacher Atmospheric Circulation, Oceans, and Long-Term Climatic Change 1) Thermohaline circulation in the deep ocean is composed of currents driven by density differences caused by changes in both temperature and salinity. a) True b) False 2) Weather and climate are driven by what source(s) of energy? I a) Earth’s internal heat V” b) Solar radiation c) Gravity d) A and C e) B and C 3) If Earth’s albedo increased, then global mean temperature would probably a) Increase b) Decrease 0) Stay the same d) none of the above 4) Uneven distribution of solar radiation, plus the pull of gravity on Earth produces a) Ocean currents and winds b) Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions 0) Mass extinctions d) The greenhouse effect e) A major decrease in albedo 5) Water’s unique heat capacity (ability to absorb heat energy) is important to the global redistribution of solar energy absorbed by the Earth? a) True b) False 6) Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased by about 30% in the last 200 years. This can lead to a) a trend toward global cooling and glaciation on Earth b) global warming of the air as well as the oceans’ surface c) possible flooding of the flat coastal areas around the world (1) more frequent and powerful tsunami waves in the Pacific e) only B and C are correct 7) Air masses always move horizontally from a) high pressure to low pressure areas b) low pressure to high pressure areas c) from oceans to continents d) fiorn continents to oceans e) none of the above 'J "\3 Page 1 of 8 Natural Disasters: Mid-term 2 November 15, 2006 Geology 303: Section 10 Lecturer: Jonathan Goodmaeher 8) Surface water circulation in the oceans is occasioned by ? a) winds b) changes in salinity of seawater due to evaporation 9) Jet streams a) flow west to east b) are at high altitudes c) are relatively narrow bands d) all of the above 10) Why is more heat absorbed at the equatorial regions of Earth? a) the sun is at low angle b) the sun is at high angle c) there’s more atmosphere to absorb radiation d) the oceans reflect out more radiation e) there’s a shortage in the solar output that reaches the poles 11) Which of the following air movements are not cyclonic? a) low pressure system b) tornado c) hurricane d) jet stream 12) Which of the following air masses would be the least dense? a) hot dry b) cold dry 13) The Coriolis force is caused by ? a) unequal heating of the planet b) rotation of the planet 0) a strong jet stream 14) The earth has gone in and out of glacial periods in the last few million years. These cycles are probably caused . a) by solar radiation variation caused by orbital variations b) by changes in ocean currents c) by volcanic eruptions d) by plate tectonic cycles 15) Convection'cells (Hadley Cells) function to transfer heat energy from the equatorial regions to the subtropics? a) True b) False 16) Warm air in the tropics rises because a) it has more energy b) of the Coriolis effect c) it is less dense d) it is more dense Page 2 of 8 Natural Disasters: Mid-term 2 November 15, 2006 Geology 303: Section 10 Lecturer: Jonathan Goodmacher 17) Warm air is , and so it _, and produces cells ofH__ pressure. a) denser, sinks, high b) denser, rises, 10w c) less dense, rises, low d) less dense, rises, high 6) denser, sinks, low 18) In addition to carbon dioxide which of the following gases is a major greenhouse gas? a) oxygen b) methane c) argon 19) The Earth’s climate has varied significantly over geologic time and there have been periods of Earth’s history that were much colder than now and much warmer than now. a) True b) False 20) The polar front is located between ? a) warm westerlies and even warmer trade winds b) cold polar easterlies and the warm trade winds 0) cold polar easterlies and warm westerlies d) polar westerlies and the warmer easterlies 21) Global warming can occur for all the following reasons except ? a) an increase carbon dioxide in the atmosphere K:JJ‘an increase in the amount of incoming solar radiation c ) an increase in Earth's distance from the Sun 22) at global atmospheric changes are occurring due to human influence? % Carbon dioxide levels are increasing b) Carbon dioxide levels are decreasing c) Volcanoes are more frequent d) Launching of space vehicles has caused more ice storms 23) Weather is produced in the _, which is the lower approximately _ of our atmosphere. a) troposphere, 12 km b) lithosphere, 12 km c) stratosphere, 50 km d) ozone layer, 50 km 24) Which statement is not true about the Coriolis effect? a) it curves the path of winds to the right in the northern hemisphere. b) it is caused by the Earth’s rotation on its axis. c) when air sinks in the north Hadley cell, the Coriolis effect causes it to veer off to the right. d) because of it, tornadoes in the United States rotate in a counterclockwise fashion. e) because of it, hurricanes off the eastern United States rotate in a clockwise fashion. Page 3 of 8 \‘ Natural Disasters: Mid-term 2 N ovembe 15,2006 Geology 303: Section 10 r Lecturer: Jonathan Goodmacher 25) In the northern hemisphere, low pressure systems are systems are__ a) cyclonic, anticyclonic b) rotating clockwise, rotating counterclockwise c) anticyclonic, cyclonic d) full of dry air, full of moist air e) stable, unstable , whereas high pressure 27) Some effects of global warming may be a) increase in droughts in some areas b) increase in rainfall in some areas c) sea-level rise d) shifts in forests and agriculture patterns e) all of the above 28) Climate variations on the scale of years or decades may be caused by a) solar radiation variation caused by orbital variations b) changes in ocean currents c) volcanic eruptions d) plate tectonic cycles e) none of the above 29) Which of the following natural disasters causes the most deaths per year in the US? a) earthquakes b) volcanic eruptions 0) mass movements d) severe weather e) meteorite impacts 30) The Fujita scale quantifies tornadoes, based on wind speed and a) length of time it is on the ground b) the extent of damages caused by wind 6) diameter of the funnel d) speed at which the fiinnel moves across the ground 3 1) A drought is defined as a) a desert region of low rainfall b) a time of abnormally low rainfall c) a famine condition d) a lack of water Short-Term Climate Change and Severe Weather Events Page 4 of 8 Natural Disasters: Mid-term 2 November 15, 2006 Geology 303: Section 10 Lecturer: Jonathan Goodmacher 32) Which of the following events may be associated with thunderstorms? a) heavy rainfall and hail b) thunder and lightning c) tornadoes Q all of the above 33 urface air currents (trade winds) in the tropics move... a) to the west and away from the equator b to the east and away from the equator @ to the west and toward the equator 3 here is the place to be when a tornado strikes? a) in an open field b) in a mobile home E) in the basement 35)Lightning is electric flow generated when opposite charges attract. a) True b) False 36)A very large explosive volcanic eruption (eg, Tambora, 1815) would likely do which of the following ? a) increase global temperatures b) lower global temperatures 37) What conditions would favor the formation of a strong mid-latitude cyclone? a) strong low pressure b) strong jet stream winds c) contrasting air masses d) all of the above 38) The United States is hit by the majority of tornadoes around the globe. a) True ' b) False 39) Hail is most common in what region of the US? a) New England b) Southeast 0) Midwest d) Southwest e) Northwest 40) Plate tectonics can contribute to global climate change by all the following except _? a) changing the shape and the corresponding circulation of the oceans. b) changing the locations and configurations of continents c) by contributing to the formation of El Ninos every 4-7 years d) uplifting mountains and changing atmospheric flow patterns Page 5 of 8 Natural Disasters: Mid-term 2 Geology 303: Section 10 Lecturer: Jonathan Goodmacher November 15, 2006 41) Heat waves don’t really cause human deaths just high air conditioning bills. a True )/.\False 42 ornadoes in the US. usually move from a) northwest to southeast ,fb’)? southwest to northeast 955 north to south d) south to north e) east to west 43) Most thunderstorms in the US. are the result of collision of cooler air with air mass? a) warm, moist Pacific a?) warm, moist Gulf of Mexico c) cool, dry north Pacific d) cool, dry north Atlantic —____ Hurricanes and Coastal Processes 44) What months do strong hurricanes usually hit the eastern US? a) January, February b) May, June Q August, September 4 urricane Andrew in 1992 caused most of its damage by a) strong winds b) storm surge c) flooding d) waves e) tsunami 46 urricanes generally move... to the west and away from the equator b) to the east and away from the equator c) to the west and toward the equator d) to the east and-toward the equator 47) Which of the following would typically help to kill a hurricane? a) passing over land b) passing over cold water 0) strong high level winds d) all of the above 6) none of the above 48) A storm surge is a pile of warm seawater rushing onshore and caused most often by a tsunami. a) True b) False Page 6 of 8 Natural Disasters: Mid—term 2 Geology 303: Section 10 Lecturer: Jonathan Goodmach'er November 15, 2006 49) In the northern hemisphere the strongest winds in a hurricane traveling to the northwest would occur on the side of the storm. a) northwest @ northeast c) southeast d) southwest 50) In most hurricanes extensive death and destruction are caused mainly by . a) storm surge b) inland flooding 0) wind d tornadoes ) both A and B 51) hich of the following factors are used on the Safflr-Simpson scale to rate the intensity of a hurricane? a) barometric pressure b) wind speed storm surge 6) all of the above e) none of the above 52) A hurricane is fueled by ? a water vapor é surface winds the jet stream (1) the moon 53) Which of the following locations would generally not experience hurricanes? a) eastern Pacific (north hemisphere) b) western Pacific (north hemisphere) 0) western Pacific (south hemisphere) Atlantic (north hemisphere) ) Atlantic (south hemisphere) sea levels rise (as predicted by global warming) the east and gulf coasts of the United States would retreat from the present coastline a lot farther than would occur _ nthe west coast. @ True ) False 55) Common ocean waves are primarily caused by a) gravitational forces b) tides 'c) wind energy transferred to water 9 undersea earthquakes and volcanoes e) the motion of boats and marine animals '\ \ 54) Page 7 of8 Natural Disasters: Mid-term 2 November 15, 2006 Geology 303: Section 10 Lecturer: Jonathan Goodmacher 56) The process of Iongshore drift results from a) wave refraction as waves hit the coast b) oblique wave run up as waves hit the coast 0) tides and their influence on water moving in and out of bays d) storms far out at sea that force water onto the coast e) none of the above 57) Which of the following statements regarding hurricanes generally affecting the United States is true? a) Financial losses have increased, but loss of life has decreased over time. b) Financial losses and loss of life have decreased over time. c) Financial losses and loss of life have increased over time. (1) Financial losses have decreased, but loss of iife has increased over time. 58) Hurricanes cannot move over the equator a) True b) False 59) Mudflows and debris avalanches during and after hurricanes usually result from a) storm surges b) heavy rains c) high winds (1) tidal waves e) none of the above 60) Hurricanes generally increase in strength over warm oceans as well as over land that has been heated up since they are fueled by heat only a) True b) False Page 8 of 8 ...
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Geol303 f06 midterm2 - Natural Disasters: Mid—term 2...

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