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Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Europeans and the New World 1492-1600...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2 Europeans and the New World, 1492-1600 What was happening in Europe during this period? It was a period of building nation states, of intellectual ferment, and of religious experimentation. Renaissance Reformation Counter Reformation At end of the period, moving into the Enlightenment How might we characterize what was happening? There was a movement away from the corporate self toward a concept of individualism and individual rights. This is most clearly reflected in the American Declaration of Independence. Competition between the emerging nation states could take place economically, but often led to war. What motivated the competition? Cloves!! Video Lesson 2: 1 & 2 Columbus discovery of the Americas resulted in part the increasing application of science to understanding the physical world. Portugal led the world in exploration through the application of science to navigation thanks to an extraordinary person, Prince Henry the Navigator. The virtual monopoly of Venice in the spice trade, led the Portuguese to sail down the African coast, looking for a sea passage to the Far East. Because the Portuguese dominated the exploration of an eastward passage to the riches of the Orient, it occurred to Columbus that sailing west to get to the Far East was an attractive alternative. He was not looking to discover lands unknown in Europe and Asia. When Columbus died, he still believed he was very close to the cloves and the wealth they symbolize. What made the voyages of the Portuguese and Spanish possible? Technology compass hourglass astrolabe quadrant caravel Caravela Latina Caravela Redonda Astrolabe Sextant Some make fun of Columbus, saying he didn't know where he was going, didn't know where he was when reached the Americas, and couldn't explain where he had been. How can that be? 1609 and the story of Thomas Harriot and Galileo With the discovery of the Americas, Spain catapulted past Portugal in exploration and led to Spain's emergence as a wealthy world power--the greatest naval power of the time. What did the discovery do to the world? began the Columbian exchange provided a stage on which national and religious differences would compete decimated the native populations created an image of unimaginable wealth that would be perpetuated for decades before the true wealth became evident shook the church's and humankind's self image What was the Columbian exchange? It changed the world! domesticated animals wheeled vehicles fire arms sailing ships technology Christianity diseases Europe The Americas corn potatoes pineapples syphilis gold & silver The Columbian exchange provided a stage on which national and religious differences would compete. both the Old and New Worlds were drawn into wars the Reformation found fertile ground in North America The native populations, perhaps 100,000,000 people were decimated by the exchange. What happened? the natives did not have acquired immunity relatively small numbers migrated here leading to very homogeneous biochemistry Europeans have 35 classes of human leukocyte antigens while Native Americans have 17 T-cells can fight parasites or microorganisms Source: 1491, pp.105-108. The almost unimaginable fortune taken from Meso-America and Peru created an image of that would be perpetuated for decades before the true wealth became evident. The Exchange shook the church's and humankind's self image. were the native populations human? were there separate creations? how could two continents exist without the knowledge of the Old World? What is the real wealth? Theodore Schultz won the Nobel Prize in Economics for his work on human capital theory. What is capital? Goods and services set aside for future production--it is the foundation for the industrial and green revolutions. The encomienda system recognized the value of human labor but not the value of human capital formation. What role did the Reformation and the teachings of Martin Luther play in this story? the unifying influence of one church (in Europe) came to an end the English Reformation led the English out of the Roman Catholic Church and the creation of the Church of England which led to the emergence of Puritans, separatists and other sects and to the Puritan Revolution these represented pushes What did Martin Luther teach? justification by faith the Bible as the only source of truth about God the priesthood of all believers the implication of equality and the denial of the church's central role in the pursuit of salvation This sets the stage for English settlement of North America. ...
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