PS12InstitutionsandWar2008class

PS12InstitutionsandWar2008class - War and Peace...

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War and Peace International Institutions and War
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The Puzzle In a well-governed country, the police prevent and punish acts of violence between individuals. In the international system, efforts to prevent or punish acts of violence between states are inconsistent and often ineffective. Where are the police in international politics? Or, how do international institutions affect the prospects for peace and war?
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Anarchy In the international system, there is no single political authority higher than the state. In other words, the system is characterized by anarchy. In anarchy, states are dependent upon self- help. In short, there are no “police.” Nonetheless, states do cooperate and build institutions that affect their security and the prospects for war and peace.
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Alliances Alliances are institutions that facilitate military cooperation. Offensive alliances (e.g., agreement between Germany and Soviet Union in 1939 to dismember Poland; “coalition of the willing” in Iraq in 2003) Defensive alliances (e.g., alliance between Britain, France, and Poland, NATO) What do (defensive) alliances do? augment the power of member states, deterring challenges increase the costs of war (typically), expanding the bargaining range create new information asymmetries, leading to new bargaining failures
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Bargaining Between Two States A’s ideal point B’s ideal point p p+b p-a Bargaining range: deals that both prefer to war p = probability of victory; a and b = costs of war; q = status quo If q in this range, A has incentive to challenge If q in this range, neither has incentive to challenge If q in this range, B has incentive to challenge
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PS12InstitutionsandWar2008class - War and Peace...

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