POLI12 Midterm Definitions

POLI12 Midterm Definitions - Mercantilism-a system by which...

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Mercantilism- a system by which imperial governments used military power to enrich themselves and their supporters, then used those riches to enhance their military power. Significance: Mercantilism’s principal mechanism was the establishment of monopolies that controlled trade and other economic activities, twisting it so as to bring money into the coffers of the government and its business supporters. Example: These private enterprises were given exclusive rights to economic activities in vast areas of the colonial world. The merchants thus privileged used their monopolies to buy cheap and sell dear, and to keep out of potential competitors. Often the private monopolies were given the right to use military force to protect and extend the domain of their business, and of their home countries. (manipulating terms of trade) Pax Britannica- 1815-1914, hundred years’ peace—British Peace—the period of relative peace in Europe and the British Empire controlling most key naval trade routes and enjoying unchallenged sea power. Britain avoided conflicts with countries by acting to maintain a balance of power. This rough balance was the general goal of British foreign policy for the century, helped deter military conflict among the European powers. Cold War- 1945-1989 The period of conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union. Their military and economic interests were almost diametrically opposed. The United States favored market-based, capitalist economic activities, while the Soviet Union rejected markets and capitalism in favor of a centrally planned socialism. NATO and Warsaw pact were formed as defensive alliances against one another. The two superpowers built more political, economical, and cultural ties, and negotiated agreements to limit the arms race. The Balance of Terror- bipolar international system, aggressive moves in Eastern Europe cause U.S. to suspect Soviet motives. NATO, unilateral moves in Western Germany cause Soviet Union to suspect the U.S. Massive peacetime military build ups on both sides. Nuclear weapons threaten annihilation but produce great power stability. Interests- refer to the goals that actors have, the outcomes they hope to obtain through political action. Significance
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POLI12 Midterm Definitions - Mercantilism-a system by which...

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