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‘ 0‘l .. E42, Maiim‘tgjdtk 1911‘ S7; Study guide—Final Wumd/wai In order to do well on the exam, study the following areas and provide examples for each: WW ‘01
1. Signs: arbitrary, non-arbitrary, representational (iconic) g I}
2. Varieties of English — National variety, geographical (or regional) varieties, ethnic, socio-economic varieties and g—
register. Deﬁnitions, similarities and differences, examples. '
3. How many different ways can you classify morphemes? What are the subcategories in each?
4. What is an affix?
5. Be able to read phonetic transcripts, and transcribe short (one or two syllable) words
6. Concepts to understand, explain, and give examples of. Phoneme — allophone distinction; Complementary
distribution; Free variation; Minimal pair; Overlapping vs contrastive environment. . 1}
7. Phonologiwl rules - throughout the chapter \A (.14 “33‘ A. I ,+
a. Nasalization rule
b. Lengthening rule
c. ‘ Flapping rule
d. Schwa insertion
e. Assimilation rule
8. Language and dialects — differences and similarities: mutual intelligibility.
9. , What is a basic difference in discussion between a dialect and a register?
10. In what linguistic areas may dialects differ? Provide examples.
11. Be clear on the following terms: constituent, phrase structure rule, adjunct versus complement, structural versus
12. Do each of the following tasks with the list of sentences below.
a. Determine what kind of sentence it is (simple, coordinate, complex). If it is complex,
determine the embedded ciause(s).
b. Analyze the simple and coordinate sentences by drawing a diagram. That is,
determine the constituents applying the phrase structure rules.
0 The boy looked at the cat in the car.
0 The children ate healthy vegetables at home but they ate junk food at school.
0 The table which you put the dinner on is broken.
0 I bought the car in LA.
0 Tony met the faculty from the department and he invited them for dinner.
13. Utterance meaning is different from sentence meaning. In what way? Illustrate your claim with an example.
14. Lexical semantics. Explain, and provide examples of hyponymy, synonymy, antonymy and part/whole
relationships and converseness.
15. Describe what Deborah Tannen says about how men talk differently from women. What did you ﬁnd out about
the accuracy of measuring these differences?
16. Describe the discourse/linguistic measures that could potentially cause misunderstanding across cultures?
17. What did Gumperz, the famous anthropologistlsociolinguist say about the relationship between language use
and social status through his video?
18. What did you ﬁnd out about language and the brain?
19. What do we know about ﬁrst language acquisition today?
20. What does the case of Gene tell us about ﬁrst language acquisition?
21. What are the stages of ﬁrst language acquisition? Provide examples for each.
22. What periods in the history of the English language do we distinguish? Mention 1 major literary work of each era.
23. What are the major historical events of these times that Ielt a mark on the English language?
24. What does Grimm’s Law say? Provide examples of clear cases of borrowing Germanic versus Romance
25. How did the Great Vowel Shilt change English pronunciation? Provide examples.
26. What kind of pronunciation patterns do you see today that may change the language from today to our children’s
time? Provide examples.
27 . List the three types of writing. Characterize each in terms of how they represent meaning. Give examples of each type- ...
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- Spring '04