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Lab 1-Uniform Acceleration

# Lab 1-Uniform Acceleration - Uniform Acceleration...

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Uniform Acceleration Experiment #1 April 14, 2007 Section 3 Lab Station 7 Introduction:

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The purpose of this lab is to utilize the data obtained from a smart pulley to measure the constant acceleration of various masses. The experiment allows us to take measurements from a frictionless mass and pulley system. A glider sitting on an air track used to simulate a frictionless surface is pulled by various masses which experience the downward force of gravity in addition to its own mass. Using this data, we will be able to analyze the time and distances in order to calculate the acceleration of these masses. The basic physical principles involved include Newton’s second law of motion with regards to a pulley system. Equations: For a level track: For a track that is not leveled 2 : 21 Report guideline question #1 2 Report guideline question #6 M 1 m 2 F T F T m 2 g M 1 g F N Newton’s Second Law: F = ma (1) Mass on glider: F T = M 1 a (2) Mass hung from string: m 2 g – F T = m 2 a (3) Acceleration of system: a = m 2 g/(M 1 +m 2 ) (4) Derivation for Equation 1 (4) : Step 1: Plug equation (2) into equation (3) m 2 g – M 1 a = m 2 a Step 2: Put “a” on one side M 1 a + m 2 a = m 2 g Step 3: Factor out “a” a(M 1 + m 2 ) = m 2 g Step 4: Solve for “a” a = m 2 g/(M 1 + m 2 ) α M 1 m 2 F T m 2 g If the air track is not level, the measured acceleration is affected due to the slight incline or decline angle that is created by this flaw. As in the free-body diagram shown to the right, if the angle makes the airtrack an incline, the system will accelerate slower due to the additional force (F 2 = M 1 gsinα) that the glider now experiences which points in the opposite direction of the tension force. Therefore, when calculating the equation for the mass on the glider, instead of just being F T = M 1 a, it would be F T – M 1 gsinα = M 1 a. The change in the equation for the glider carries through when solving for the acceleration of the entire system. The resulting formula for the acceleration of the system if the air track had a slight incline would turn out to be: a = (m 2 g – M 1 gsinα)/(M 1 + m 2 ) Due to this alteration, the resulting acceleration of the system would be less if the air track was inclined upwards. F 2 F T M 1 F T Another case where the acceleration would be altered is when the air track is declined. In this situation, the additional force (F 2 = M 1 gsinα) would go in the same direction of the tension force in the string. This would cause the acceleration of the entire system to be greater than if the air track F g F N F N
Procedure: For this experiment, the acceleration of a system is calculated using a glider, air track, smart pulley, and five different hanging masses. The air track is turned on to simulate a frictionless surface and then the glider is placed on it. The various masses are then attached to one end of the string whose other end is attached to the glider. The string is placed in the groove of the pulley which measures the amount it takes for the string to travel 1.5 centimeters. The glider is pulled

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Lab 1-Uniform Acceleration - Uniform Acceleration...

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