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Anth349 s07 exam3

Anth349 s07 exam3 - Anth 349 Section ‘ Roots of...

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Unformatted text preview: Anth 349, Section ‘ Roots of Civilization Sprrng,'7Ub7 Ball & Taschek fl Roots of Civilization - Exam 3 Exam 3 includes materials from lectures Thursday, 22 March (Prehistoric Egypt—Introduction) through Thursday, 3. May (Prehistoric China-Final)as well as relevant affiliated information from previous classes; & associated readings in Images of the Past. Due in the Main Office, Anth Department (448 Arts & Letters) by 2:00 pm, Thursday, 10 May. No late exams will be accepted. We will pick up your scantrons at 2:00 pm and leave campus. We will not return for at least a week. Do NOT turn in your exam late. The Anthropology Office is located on the 4th floor. Take the elevators up to the 4th floor; turn right; there it is. Turn your exam into the secretary sitting to the right of the door. DO NOT PUSH IT UNDER THE DOOR or PIN IT TO ANY OFFICE DOOR. Total: 40 questions: 1 point each. Note: there is M “trick” question for which any and all answers are acceptable~we will enumerate your honest responses to it, but all will receive credit for it! Please use the short, green Scantron form number 882-ES available at the East and West Commons and Aztec shops. Take your time. Read each question and answer carefully. Be sure you understand whether the question asks “which of the following statements gig true” or “which of the following statements are M true.” Eliminate answers that are patently incorrect. Mark answers that are true — you may write on the exam. Try to figure out what, if any, information in the questions and/or in the answers is “extraneous” — this information is provided as a hint; as a way to assure that you understand the exact meaning and reference in the question; and as a way of testing your reading and reasoning skills. Trust your first instincts. Be sure you understand the question and the possible answers. We are not trying to trick you; do not parse the questions and answers so carefully that you strangle your understanding. All dates provided in the exam are correct— we are not testing you on dates! Check your answers. You may use your textbook, class notes, power points (remember to look carefully at the maps), and any other books and sources you may wish to consult including on-line sources; however, you should not have to do this. Your textbook; the information we provide in class; and the PowerPoints from class trump information from all other classes, assigned reading in other classes; other books (especially those written by Jared Diarnondl); and on—line sources. You may work together in groups. If you know the answers, you are not obligated to share them with your friends. If you share them with classmates you do not know via Blackboard or by any other means, you are incredibly stupid. Good luck!!! 12 39. The Middle Neolithic in China (5000 - 3000 BC) was a time best characterized by which of the following statements? A. A period of cultural stagnation during which Villages grew slowly in size and complexity. B. A period of cultural growth similar to those which have occurred in many mountainous regions, like those of Mexico and Iran, in which numerous regional cultures developed within topographically protected valleys. C. A period of cultural development in which urbanization and state—level political organization appeared in both northern China and the lower Yangtze River Valley (Liangzhu Culture). D. A period of intensive interaction with Southeast Asia, exemplified by the site of Khok Phanom Di, Thailand. E. A period of cultural growth similar to that of the European Neolithic when villages became “perfectly” specialized in the exploitation of every micro—environmental zone within their sustaining area. 40. Which of the following statements does not pertain to Tomb M45, a late Neolithic burial (ca. 3000 BC) of an adult male at Xishuipo in Henan Province? A. It represents the antecedents of northern Chinese rulership during the San dai or Three Dynasties Period (Xia, Shang, and Xhou, ca. 2205 - 221 BC). B. It represents the inception of astronomy in China. C. During the Yangshao Period the status of shamans changed from that of a part-time or occasional practitioner to that of a community leader. D. “History is a dangerous occupation in totalitarian countries and Chinese historians are under a great deal of political pressure to claim ancient scientific priorities.” ' E. It represents the Chinese preoccupation with food, eating, and the strict etiquette regarding the appropriate serving and consumption of food. Cheers; abrazos; y Xi ’z'k tech utsil te ’lo ’! Jennie y Don Pepe 5. Which of the following best describes the construction of mortuary complexes by Egyptian pharaohs of the Old Kingdom? A. They were foolproof tombs until 19'11 century looters using “modem” technology learned 'how to penetrate their sealed exteriors made of granite from Upper Egyptian quarries. B. They were cosmological schemes designed to transport the pharaohs’ Shamanic personas into the afterlife. C. They consisted of linear architectural compositions approached by axial processionals (ceremonial ways) articulated by double rows of columns and sphinxes. D. They represent “hard labor” by enslaved Hebrews. E. They were efficient redistribution systems for agricultural surpluses. 6. Which of the following statements does not pertain to Meroé? A. Fertile grasslands surrounding the city were destroyed by drought; overgrazing; and voracious charcoal burning. B. The city fimctioned as a trading hub involved with the movement of goods from western India, the Nile River Valley, the Persian Gulf states, and North Africa. C. Slag from iron smelting piled up in the ceremonial precinct as well as in residential areas of the city. D. The culture exhibited a unique blend of Egyptian and Afiican culture which persisted for over 500 years. E. The city declined when its complex irrigation system was destroyed by constant warfare, .poor drainage, and salt build-up in the soil. ‘ ' 7. Which of the following statements pertaining to the script associated with Harappan civilization and the cities of the Indus Valley is not true? ' ' A. It died out without Contributing to the writing systems now used in India and Pakistan. B. The longest inscription known at the present time occurred on a “sign board.” C. It is the written form of a Dravidian language presently spoken in southern India and provides solid proof of the connection between Harappan civilization and the later cultures of India. D. It was inscribed on clay stamps used “to seal” the contents of warehouses and containers. E. Signs on the clay seal with the Zebu bull may represent the titles and lineage name of the rulers of Mohenjo-daro. 8. Which of the following statements best describes the 3000 yeartrajectory of Egyptian civilization in the Nile Valley? A. Egypt’s isolation by the surrounding deserts permitted the development of a unique and well integrated culture that persisted for 3000 years. with little influence from the outside world. B. Long periods of time during which a single unified state dominated both Upper and Lower Egypt alternated with shorter periods characterized by political and economic chaos when foreign invaders and small regional states exerted their power. C. Long periods of political unity and cultural isolation (stagnation) alternated with periods of economic and political upheaval during which external, foreign influences reoriented and reinvigorated the culture of the Nile. D. All of the above. E. None of the above. 10 For each of questions 30— 34, associate the indicated site, region, period, or civilization with one or more of the following attributes which best describes it. Iron working. Looting. Bronze working. Use of human labor. Terracotta figurines. Complex technologies based on high temperature kilns. Complex stone masonry. Poor development of technology. Sophisticated pottery. 0 Administrative water management ewwr ~©®NQM 30. San dai. k “a g \- ratings? @92th 1 .1 .2 2 2, 3 l. J enne-j enno. 13. The photograph above shows the relationship between the Abu el-Haggag Mosque; Luxor (the entrance pylons are on the far right); and the Nile River. The photograph illustrates A. the importance of the Nile River to Egyptian civilization and its continuing importance to modern Islamic concepts of the afterlife. B. a world-wide pattern in which architecture demonstrates the disdain of one religion for that of a preceding and vanquished one. C. a world-wide pattern in which sacred locations retain their holy nature through many millennium. ‘ . D. A and B. ‘ E. B and C] 14. With their fabled civilization literally in ruins and collapsing around them, the Maya were saved from descent into savagery and barbarism and achieved salvation through the arrival of A. the starship Enterprise, Kirk, Spock, and Picard. B. kind and wise Franciscan padres lead by the gentle and peace—loving Spaniard, Francisco de Montejo. C. the Texas National Guard and FEMA, sent back through a worrnhole by U.S. President George W. Bush. D. Mel Gibson and the risen Christ. E. Jack Sparrow and his pirate crew. 15. Which of the following statements best describes the relationship of prehistoric Egypt with the outside world? ' 1. Egypt transferred its culture south along the Nile River into Nubia where it was imitated and modified by local African cultures. 2. As an African civilization, (one of many African states) Egypt maintained intensive, long lasting relationships with sub-Saharan Black Africa. 3. Egypt was located where connections with the eastern Mediterranean states, Mesopotamia, and SE as well as SW Asia are easy. 4. Egypt drew products and information to itself (absorbed outside influences) rather than transfer its own products and cultures to others. 5. Even at its greatest extent and power in the New Empire, Egypt was unable to conquer and maintain control of lands beyond the Sinai Peninsula and Nubia. 23. Which of the following statements pertaining to the advent of agriculture and Neolithic Period in China is not correct. A. Some of the dish forms we use to eat Chinese food today originated at least 8000 years ago. B. The two great river systems of China were associated with the domestication of two, very different grasses both of which spread beyond the habitats of their ancestral wild species. C. Archaeological evidence from recent excavations exposing entire Longshan villages have documented that noodles were'introduced into China by Marco Polo during the late 13th century. D. Tongue-shaped stone spades for planting and cultivating millet were replaced by plows; spades made from oxen shoulder blades were used in wetland rice cultivation. E. Villages of square or circular, semi-subterranean dwellings with perishable walls and roofs were surrounded by ditches but, unlike in Mesopotamia, there is little published evidence for warfare. 24. The hieroglyphic inscription in the above panel from the Mery Family chapel (ca. 1938 - 1875 BC) showing a family group with offerings was read A. from lefi-to-right. B. from right-to—left. C. top to bottom from either lefi—to-right or right-to-left. D. the direction cannot be determined from the image. E. the left panel was read left—to—right; the central panel was read in either direction; and the right panel was read right-to—left like some modern advertisements. 25. The draped skirts of the large individuals represent A. the power of Osiris, the god of regeneration, over Seth, the god of evil. B. the sail of the barge which carried the sun through the sky. C. the perfect form of the sun’s rays. D. the power of order over chaos. E. they don’t represent or symbolize anything. 20. Which of the following is not associated with Qin Shihuangdi? A. Uniquely cast and assembled bronze vessels used for presentation of food and wine during competitive feasting, an important from of surplus redistribution in unstable, early states. B. The Great Wall of China. C. Burning books. ' D. The terra cotta army from Xian. E. The unification of China carried outwith a ruthless campaign of assassination, execution, and warfare. 2 1. Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between the Harappan civilization of Indus River Valley and the great urban civilization of Mesopotamia? A. Both were pristine civilizations; thus, (by definition) interaction between them was minimal. B. Interaction was restricted to the fortuitous sharing of domesticated plant and animal species because each culture (independently) domesticated species from the same mountainous region that is now in Iran. C. Trade was pretty much a one—way—street with raw materials moving cast out of modern Baluchistan into production areas located in the Indus Valley and luxury manufactured items moving west along the coast into cities such as Ur. D. Extensive trade developed between the two areas with large shipments of surplus food and bitumen moving cast into the Indus Valley in exchange for gold, silk, papyrus, and ceramics made on the slow-turning wheel. 1 . E. Manufacturing techniques were so advanced in Mesopotamia that Mohenjo—daro, Harappa, and other cities in the Indus Valley exported primarily raw materials, including tin, copper, carnelian, and lapis lazuli to them and imported the finished luxury items. ‘ 22. Archaeology oftenvposes questions and hypotheses that cannot easily be answered by excavation but may help to clarify the culture history of an area. Which of the following statements pertaining to the emergence of early states in Egypt was not discussed in class. A. State-level political organization emerged earlier in the south where the agricultural area inundated by the Nile is smaller; thus, the high population densities prerequisite for state formation arose earlier in the Upper Nile than further north where seasonal flooding make more land. B. The annual Nile floods resulted in the congregation of the rural population into the cities which were located on highest ground which never flooded. C. The appearance of early states in the Upper Nile is actually an artifact of archaeology (or the lack thereof) combined with geological processes. States emerged as early in the Lower Nile as they did in the south; however, the archaeological evidence for them is now buried under river sediment or is inaccessible because the modern population centers of Egypt have covered them. D. Evidence from the Namer plaque indicates that the states of northern Egypt, in particular Hierakonpolis, was conquering equally complex states in the Lower Nile, providing information for the development of states throughout the entire length of the Nile Valley. E. Egypt presents an extreme example of environmental circumscription because it consists of a fertile area surrounded by barren desert. 16. Which of the following statements best describes Great Zimbabwe? A. It was an fortified, inland settlement and trading hub built and maintained by the Arab and Portuguese trading companies that monopolized African - southeast Asian commerce after ca. AD 1250. B. It was the seat of a typical south Afiican chiefdom in which wealth from the gold and slave trade was transformed into power via a complex system of redistribution and competitive feasting. C. It was the largest state in southern Africa but its development was not unlike that of many other sub—Saharan states where rulers’ powers were based on herds of cattle and trading monopolies. D. A and B. E. B and C. 17. Which of the following, uniquely Chinese, cultural traditions cannot be traced back to (at least) the time periods of Longshan or Liangzhu. A. smoking opium. B. scapulimancy. C. ritual status symbols executed in jade and ceramics. D. musical instruments associated with ritual ceremonies. E. differentiation of ceramic forms for cooking, serving, and drinking. 18. Which of the following statements best describes Egyptian agriculture? A. Egyptian agriculture was based on irrigation using the shadufi a unique system of levers for raising water from the Nile River. B. Agriculture within the Nile Valley was well established long before the farming methods for domesticated varieties of millet and rice were established in northern and southern China. C. Egyptian agriculture was dependent on the seasonal rainy season in the highland slopes and mountainous rift valleys of eastAfrica. D. Egyptian agriculture was based on uniquely Egyptian crops that occur nowhere else in the Old World because the system was dependent on desert-river environmental conditions that exist only in the Nile River Valley (and along the Colorado River in the southwestern United States). E. B and C. 19. Which of the following was not involved in the development of Chinese writing? A. Texts consisting of the names and recipes for grain and mixed-grain-and—meat foods; sacred myths; legal decisions; and bureaucratic decrees written on rolled up “sheets” of bamboo sticks. B. Oracle bones with the dynastic sequence of the early San dai periods. C. Potters’ marks. D. Texts “confirming: the genealogy of the rulers and bragging about their war time exploits and sacrifices to the spirits. E. Caches of used divination texts inscribed on turtle scutes and oxen shoulder bones. 26. Which of the following statements pertaining to rice is not true? A. The spread of rice farming from the Yangtze River wetlands into northern China was associated with the spread of farming populations speaking ancestral Austroasian languages. BJmWMMMMMWMWflmfiwmfimmfimeMMmfimflmwm. 1766 - 1100 BC) prepared for elderly wealthy individuals included rice and pickled meat. C. Although heavy rainfall rapidly leaches nutrients fiom tropical soils, wetland, rice agriculture consistently produces large surpluses despite its being planted in the same fields or paddies century-after- century for thousands of years. D. Rice and other grains were cooked and served in special vessels that would never be used for meat, fish, or vegetables. E. Rice is an important famine food because it remains edible after very long periods of storage. 27. The modern country of Ethiopia is a direct descendant of A. Nagara. B. Aksum and Meroe. C. Napata. D. Kerma. E. Jenne—Jeno. 28. How did Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, and other cities of the Indus River Valley civilization differ from other early cities we have studied? A. The cities were raised and walled for protection from floods and enemies. B. The urban structure consisted of nested, pre—planned grids with wide streets enclosing a fine grid of streets and alleys accommodating large walled compounds for the wealthy as well as mud brick tenements for the poor. ~ C. The citadels or ceremonial precincts were surrounded by walls. D. Areas for specialized craft production occurred as unified “barrios” within the cities and “unclean” industries were located outside the city walls. E. None of the above. 29. The unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, a union symbolically represented by the joining of the gods Horus and Seth, was carried out by A. Kafre, the Old Kingdom pharaoh fiom the kingdom of Kerma at Abyados. B. Namur, the pre-dynastic ruler of Hierakonpolis. C. Tutankhamun, the ruler of Amun, whose wonderful tomb was recovered by Howard Carter in l 922. D. Akhenaten, the ruler of the archaic state Meroé. E. Hatshepsut, who introduced the concept of the “pharaoh as a shepherd.” 4 9. A wealth of historical information about pre—dynastic and early dynastic northern Chinese civilization derives from A. flotation techniques used at sites with early domesticated varieties of rice. B. scapulimancy and oracle bones. C. linear B. D. hieratic script. E. demotic characters ancestral to the modern system of Chinese writing. 10. Which of the following statements pertaining to sub-Saharan Africa are true? 1. State formation occurred as early in sub-Saharan Africa (ca. 3500 BC) as it did along the upper Nile; however, its continuous development was interrupted by the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by Namer of Hierakonpolis...
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