Brady Chapter 6 - Chapter 6 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Reactions that involve the transfer of electrons are called oxidation-reduction or redox

Brady Chapter 6 - Chapter 6 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions...

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Chapter 6: Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Reactions that involve the transfer of electrons are called oxidation-reduction or redox reactions Oxidation is the loss of electrons by a reactant Reduction is the gain of electrons by a reactant
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Oxidation and reduction always occur together The total number of electrons lost by one substance is the same as the total number of electrons gained by the other For a redox reaction to occur, something must accept the electrons that are lost by another substance The substance that accepts the electrons is called the oxidizing agent
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The substance that lost the electrons is called the reduction agent Note that the oxidizing agent is reduced and the reducing agent is oxidized For example: 2 Na + Cl 2 2 NaCl Na is the reducing agent because it lost electrons and was oxidized Cl 2 is the oxidizing agent because it gained electrons and was reduced
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Oxidation numbers provide a way to keep track of electron transfers : 1) The oxidation number of any free element is zero. 2) The oxidation number of any simple, monoatomic ion is equal to the charge on the ion. 3) The sum of all oxidation numbers of the atoms in a molecule or polyatomic ion must equal the charge on the particle. 4) In its compounds, fluorine has an oxidation number of –1. 5) In its compounds, hydrogen has an oxidation number of +1. 6) In its compounds, oxygen has an oxidation number of –2.
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If there is a conflict between two rules apply the rule with the lower number and ignore the conflicting rule In binary ionic compounds with metals, the nonmetals have oxidation numbers equal to the charges on their anions Example: What is the oxidation number of Fe in Fe 2 O 3 ?
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