Ch1-2 - Chapter 1 Essentials of Geography Essentials of...

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1 Chapter 1 Essentials of Geography Essentials of Geography Earth’s Four Spheres The Earth as a Sphere Location and Time on Earth Maps, Scales, and Projections Remote Sensing and GIS Earth’s Four Spheres Abiotic —non-living (inorganic) systems Biotic —living (organic) systems
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2 1. Atmosphere Figure 1.8 Earth’s Four Spheres 2. Hydrosphere 3. Lithosphere 4. Biosphere Course: 4 Parts The Earth as a Sphere Pythagoras (Greece, 580-500 B.C.) Earth was a sphere Sir Issac Newton (1687) Rotating planets Faster rotational speed at the equator would produce an equatorial bulge Oblate ellipsoid (geoid) Earth’s Dimensions Figure 1.9
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3 Measuring Earth in 247 B.C. Eratosthenes (276-195 B.C.) • Noted difference in Sun’s angle 1 stadium = 185 m Figure 1.10 • 7.2º/360º = 1/50 • Distance = 925 km • Circumference = 46,250 km • ~15% higher than actual! Location and Time on Earth Latitude Longitude Great circles Prime Meridian and standard time Latitude Figure 1.11 Latitude is the angular distance north or south of the equator (=0°
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This note was uploaded on 05/04/2008 for the course GEOG 120 taught by Professor Hu during the Spring '08 term at E. Stroudsburg.

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Ch1-2 - Chapter 1 Essentials of Geography Essentials of...

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