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Experiment 10: Saponification of Fat—The Preparation of Soap from ShorteningCatherine LordCHEM 2081-005Drawer #83TA: Nirmal Kumar Mitra11-16-2016
Procedure:AttachedObservations:AttachedConclusions:Soap is produced by the saponification (alkaline hydrolysis) of triglycerides, which areesters of long-chain fatty acids. In this experiment, the triglyceride, sesame seed oil, is reacted witha strong base, sodium hydroxide, to produce glycerol and fatty acid salts. The salt of the fatty acid is called a soap, which is formed when the hydroxide ion cleaves the triglyceride (1).
Four tests were performed on the soap after its production. The first test was to scope out its residual alkalinity. In preparing usable soaps, the excess alkali (NaOH in this case) used in the process must be removed as it is harmful to skin. To test for the presence of residual alkali, a bit of soap was dissolved in ethanol and 2 drops of phenolphthalein were added. The solution turned a very bright pink, indicating a fair amount of residual alkali. Phenolphthalein changes color at pH