CISTelecommFall16-Slides-Lecture1Notes - Lecture 1...

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1Lecture 1: Introduction and FundamentalsMajor Topics:1.Fundamentals of PSTN & the Internet2.Terms and terminologies3. Types of communications media (wireline)
2The Overall Picture of Networking
3Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)PBXLocal LoopCentralOfficePoint ofPresenceInter-exchangeCircuitsPoint ofPresenceCentralOfficePBXLocal LoopLong distancenetworkSwitchSwitchSwitchSwitchSwitch1-3 miles>=300,000 linesHighly reliable and back-up components
4Where the Phone Switches Are?
5US TELEPHONE SYSTEM & TRA (1996)Pre 1984 (AT&T’s Monopoly)1984-1996 (Open competition for long distance market, regulated monopoly in local market)Telecom Reform Act of 1996 (deregulation causing major changes)Local companies can provide long distance and cable service (after some requirements are fulfilled)Cable companies can provide long distance and local phone service Long distance companies can provide local phone and cable service
6PCLocal Area Networks 10 Mbps to 100 Gbps(Used by businesses)RouterISP networkN-ISP networkBackboneAccess nodeT-1 (1.5Mbps)T-3 (45 Mbps)Fiber (SONET)@150 MbpsFiber (SONET)@2.4 Gbps100/400 Gbps (multiple lines)Mbps = 1,000,000 bits/secondGbps = 1000 MbpsDSL/Cable modem=1-100 Mbps(Used by individuals)RouterRouterRouterRouterInternetBackbone
7
Fundamentals8
9Basic TermsAmplitude(strength)Wavelength(meters)Frequencyin expressed in hertz (Hz) or Cycles per SecondOne Second1 Hz = 1 cycle per second1328 CyclesSo the Frequency=8 Hertz

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