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COMPUTERORGANıZATıONANDDESıGNThe Hardware/Software Interface 5thEdition Chapter 2 Instructions: Language of the Computer (part #1) Chapter 2 - 2 (vonNeumann) Processor Organization Control needs to : -input instructions from Memory -issue signals to control the information flow between the Datapath components and to control what operations they perform -control instruction sequencing Fetch Decode Exec CPU Control Datapath Memory Devices Input Output Datapath needs to have the - components –the functional units and storage (e.g., register file) needed to execute instructions -interconnects - components connected so that the instructions can be accomplished and so that data can be loaded from and stored to Memory Chapter 2 - 3 Two Key Principles of Machine Design 1.Instructions are represented as numbers and, as such, are in distinguishable from data 2.Programs are stored in alterable memory (that can be read or written to) just like data Stored-program concept Programs can be shipped as files of binary numbers –binary compatibility Computers can inherit ready-made software provided they are compatible with an existing ISA –leads industry to align around a small number of ISAs Accounting prg (machine code) C compiler (machine code) Payroll data Source code in C for Acct prg Memory Chapter 2 - 4 The MIPS Instruction Set •Used as the example throughout the book •Stanford MIPS commercialized by MIPS Technologies () •Large share of embedded core market –Applications in consumer electronics, network/storage equipment, cameras, printers (NEC, Nintendo, Cisco, Silicon Graphics, Sony,…)•Typical of many modern ISAs –See MIPS Reference Data tear-out card, and Appendixes B and E
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