Unit 1 - Unit 1 Chapters 1 3 CHAPTER ONE THE STUDY OF...

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Unit 1: Chapters 1 – 3 CHAPTER ONE: THE STUDY OF GOVERNMENT What is Government? “Who gets what, when, and how” It is composed of formal and informal institutions, people and processes used to create public policy. Public Policy: the government using power to do those things necessary to maintain legitimacy and control over society (ex. Global warming) Purpose of the Government The preamble of the United States constitution contains the goals of public policy that our government operates under: Form a more perfect union, which includes the strong union of these states and state sovereignty Establish justice, reasonable, fair, and impartial Insure domestic tranquility and preserve public order Provide for the common defense: protections and maintaining national defense Promote the general welfare: providing services for society for health and prosperity Securing the blessings of liberty in the form of individual freedoms Forms of Government Governments often identify by the number of rulers; one, a few, or many. Proposed by Aristotle Anarchy: a lack of government and laws Autocracy: rule of one Absolute Monarch: gains power through inheritance, no restrictions on power Constitutional Monarch: gain power through inheritance, but restrictions on power which result in mostly ceremonial duties Dictatorship: gains power through force, restricts opposition, no restriction on power Oligarchy: ruled by a few, the wealthy Aristocracy: rule by the elite, determined by wealth or status Theocracy: rule by religious leaders Democracy: rule by the people Direct Democracy: citizens make the decisions about policies directly Representative Democracy : citizens choose officials or representatives who make public policy decisions
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Theories of Government Traditional Democratic Theory: the government depends on the consent of the governed either directly or through representatives Pluralist Theory: interest groups compete in the political arena, promoting their policy preferences through organized effort; conflict typically arises Elite Theory: a small number of powerful elites form an upper class with their own interests; it includes corporate leaders, military leaders, and government leaders; this theory was proposed by C. Wright Mills Bureaucratic Theory: the hierarchical structure and standardized procedures allow bureaucrats to carry out day to day operation of the government Hyper Pluralism: many groups in a democracy that have strength that the government is pulled in many directions at the same time which causes gridlock Marxism: a constant class warfare between workers (proletariat) and the wealthy class (bourgeois) there would be a cycle where the workers could assume the higher class CHAPTER TWO: THE CONSTITUTION Early Influences The traditions and ideas of the colonists from the first permanent colony of Jamestown; it was a limited and representative government
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