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PSY302-Final Exam Notes.pdf - (chapter 6) DEVELOPMENT OF...

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(chapter 6) DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGE AND SYMBOL USELANGUAGE DEVELOPMENTSymbols:Involve systems of representing our thoughts, feelings, and knowledge, and forcommunicating them to other peoplemajority of children have learned the basic structure of their naïve language by 5 either spokenor signedComprehension:Required to develop language skills; refers to understanding what others say(or sign or write)Ø Comprehension is required to understand language as to how and what others say orwriteProduction:Refers to speaking (or signing or writing)COMPONENTS OF LANGUAGEPhonemes (phenology):Smallest units of meaningful soundØ The basic unit of meaningful sound used in language, the first step in languageacquisitionØ A change in phoneme can change the meaning of the word (rake and lake)Morphemes:Smallest units of meaning in a language, composed of one or more phonemesØ Can stand along alone as one word like car or dog, or cannot stand alone but changemeaning of a stand-alone morpheme (s can make the word dog become plural as indogs)Semantics:Understanding meanings of language expressed in words and morphemesTHE COMPONENTS OF LANGUAGESyntax:Rules specifying how words from different categories (nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc.)can be combinedØEX:Lily ate the lobster versus the lobster ate LilyWith syntactic development, children learn the syntax of different language and how to correctlycombine words from different categoriesPragmatics:Knowledge about how their native language is usedØ Understanding proper nonverbal languages like tone of voice, facial expression, andgesturesØ Same components also used in learning sign language
Generative:System in which a finite set of words can be combined to generate an infinitenumber of sentencesWHAT IS REQUIRED FOR LANGUAGE?A human brain and experiences with language, which can be achieved by all human babiesacross the worldLanguage is species-specific(setting apart from different species, because syntactic structure ismissing in their simple utterances)and species-universal(can understand signals)Nonhuman primate communicative systemsØKanzi:a bonobo that has learned to use a lexigram (board with graphic symbols foractions and objects) has learned over 250 lexigram words over yearsWHAT IS REQUIRED FOR LANGUAGE?Brain lateralization for language functioning so there are hemispheric differencesHemispheric language learning differencesØ90% of right-hander’s language is mainly processed in left cerebral hemisphere, andlifelong signersØ Both Broca and Wernicke’s areas are in left hemispheresResearch shows that speech sounds produce more electric activity on left side of newborn’sbrain, and music/nonspeech more activity on right sideSENSITIVE PERIODDuring the sensitive period, languages are easily acquired Early years until around age 5sensitive for language learningAfter this period between 5 and puberty, learning a new language becomes much harder;hypothesized that left cerebral cortex is becoming specialized for language processing duringsensitive periodGenie Example:a child discovered by authorities at age 13, was one of the most severe casesof neglect and abuse; locked in a basement since birth.

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Term
Summer
Professor
BrianRabinowicz
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