Ch07_Lecture

Ch07_Lecture - 7 Pathways That Harvest Chemical Energy 7...

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7 Pathways That Harvest Chemical Energy
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7 Pathways That Harvest Chemical Energy 7.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy? 7.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Metabolism? 7.3 How Is Energy Harvested from Glucose in the Absence of Oxygen? 7.4 How Does the Oxidation of Glucose Form ATP? 7.5 Why Does Cellular Respiration Yield So Much More Energy Than Fermentation? 7.6 How Are Metabolic Pathways Interrelated & Controlled?
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7.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy? Fuels: molecules whose stored energy can be released for use. The most common fuel in organisms is glucose. Other molecules are first converted into glucose or other intermediate compounds.
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7.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy? Principles governing metabolic pathways: Complex chemical transformations occur in a series of reactions. Each reaction is catalyzed by a specific enzyme. Metabolic pathways are similar in all organisms. In eukaryotes, metabolic pathways are compartmentalized in organelles. Each pathway is regulated by key enzymes.
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7.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy? Burning or metabolism of glucose: Glucose metabolism pathway traps the free energy in ATP: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + free energy ATP energy free P ADP i a + +
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7.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy? ΔG from complete combustion of glucose = –686 kcal/mole Highly exergonic; drives endergonic formation of many ATP
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Figure 7.1 Energy for Life Three metabolic pathways involved in harvesting the energy of glucose
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7.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy? If O 2 is present, four pathways operate: Glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, citric If O 2 is not present, pyruvate is metabolized in fermentation.
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Figure 7.2 Energy-Producing Metabolic Pathways
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7.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy? Redox reactions : one substance transfers electrons to another substance Reduction : gain of one or more electrons by an atom, ion, or molecule Oxidation : loss of one or more electrons Also applies if hydrogen atoms are gained or lost.
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7.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy? In combustion of glucose, glucose is the reducing agent, O 2 is the oxidizing agent. Energy is transferred in a redox reaction. Energy in the reducing agent becomes associated with the reduced product.
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Ch07_Lecture - 7 Pathways That Harvest Chemical Energy 7...

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