Ch10_Lecture

Ch10_Lecture - 10 Genetics: Mendel and Beyond 10 Genetics:...

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10 Genetics: Mendel and Beyond
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10 Genetics: Mendel and Beyond 10.1 What Are the Mendelian Laws of Inheritance? 10.2 How Do Alleles Interact? 10.3 How Do Genes Interact? 10.4 What Is the Relationship between Genes and Chromosomes? 10.5 What Are the Effects of Genes Outside the Nucleus?
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10.1 What Are the Mendelian Laws of Inheritance? People have been cross-breeding plants and animals for at least 5,000 years. By the ninteenth century, plant breeding was widespread. At the time, breeders worked under two assumptions about how inheritance works:
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10.1 What Are the Mendelian Laws of Inheritance? Each parent contributes equally to offspring. (Correct.) Supported by reciprocal crosses, 1770s, by Kölreuter. Hereditary determinants blend in the offspring. (Incorrect.) It was thought that once hereditary elements had blended they could never be separated. Gregor Mendel’s studies refuted this.
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10.1 What Are the Mendelian Laws of Inheritance? Mendel was an Austrian monk. His studies in physics and mathematics were a strong influence on his use of quantitative experimental methods. Over seven years, he made crosses with 24,034 plants.
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10.1 What Are the Mendelian Laws of Inheritance? His new theory of inheritance was published in 1866, but was largely ignored. Most biologists at the time were not used to thinking in mathematical terms. Even Darwin missed the significance of Mendel’s work.
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Figure 10.1 Gregor Mendel and His Garden
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10.1 What Are the Mendelian Laws of Inheritance? By 1900, meiosis had been observed. Three plant geneticists realized that chromosomes and meiosis provided a physical explanation for Mendel’s results.
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10.1 What Are the Mendelian Laws of Inheritance? Mendel chose to work with the garden pea. He could control pollination and fertilization—he could be sure of the parents of offspring. The peas naturally self-pollinate .
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10.1 What Are the Mendelian Laws of Inheritance? Character : observable physical feature (e.g., flower color). Trait : form of a character (e.g., purple flowers or white flowers). A heritable trait is passed from parent to offspring.
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10.1 What Are the Mendelian Laws of Inheritance? Mendel looked for well-defined, true- breeding traits—the observed trait is the only one present for many generations. True-breeding strains were isolated by inbreeding and selection. He concentrated on seven traits.
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Table 10.1
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10.1 What Are the Mendelian Laws of Inheritance? Mendel’s crosses: Pollen from one parent was transferred to the stigma of the other parent. Parental generation = P . Resulting offspring = first filial generation or F 1 . If F 1 plants self pollinate, produce second filial generation or F 2 .
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Figure 10.2 A Controlled Cross between Two Plants (Part 1)
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Figure 10.2 A Controlled Cross between Two Plants (Part 2)
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10.1 What Are the Mendelian Laws of Inheritance? Mendel’s first experiment:
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Ch10_Lecture - 10 Genetics: Mendel and Beyond 10 Genetics:...

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