Ch14_Lecture

Ch14_Lecture - 14 The Eukaryotic Genome and Its Expression...

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14 The Eukaryotic Genome and Its Expression
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14 The Eukaryotic Genome and Its Expression 14.1 What Are the Characteristics of the Eukaryotic Genome? 14.2 What Are the Characteristics of Eukaryotic Genes? 14.3 How Are Eukaryotic Gene Transcripts Processed? 14.4 How Is Eukaryotic Gene Transcription Regulated? 14.5 How Is Eukaryotic Gene Expression Regulated After Transcription? 14.6 How Is Gene Expression Controlled During and After Translation?
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Table 14.1
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14.2 What Are the Characteristics of Eukaryotic Genes? Gene characteristics not found in prokaryotes: Eukaryote genes contain noncoding internal sequences. Form gene families—groups of structurally and functionally related genes
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14.2 What Are the Characteristics of Eukaryotic Genes? Eukaryote genes have a promoter to which RNA polymerase binds and a terminator sequence to signal end of transcription. Terminator sequence comes after the stop codon. Stop codon is transcribed into mRNA and signals the end of translation at the ribosome.
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Figure 14.5 Transcription of a Eukaryotic Gene (Part 1)
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Figure 14.5 Transcription of a Eukaryotic Gene (Part 2)
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14.2 What Are the Characteristics of Eukaryotic Genes? Protein-coding genes have noncoding sequences— introns . The coding sequences are exons . Transcripts of introns appear in the pre- mRNA, they are removed from the final mRNA.
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14.2 What Are the Characteristics of Eukaryotic Genes? Introns interrupt, but do not scramble, the DNA sequence that encodes a polypeptide. Sometimes, the separated exons code for different domains (functional regions) of the protein.
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14.2 What Are the Characteristics of Eukaryotic Genes? About half of the eukaryote genes are present in multiple copies. Different mutations can occur in copies, giving rise to gene families . Family that encodes for immunoglobulins have hundreds of members.
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14.2 What Are the Characteristics of Eukaryotic Genes? As long as one member of a gene family retains the original sequence, copies can mutate without losing original function. This is important in evolution.
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14.2 What Are the Characteristics of Eukaryotic Genes? The globin gene family arose from a common ancestor gene. In humans:
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Ch14_Lecture - 14 The Eukaryotic Genome and Its Expression...

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