Lecture_1A_Carbohydrates_S2008

Lecture_1A_Carbohydrates_S2008 - Four major classes of...

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Four major classes of biomolecules Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic Acids
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Carbohydrates
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3 major classes of carbohydrates
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Monosaccharides
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Trioses are the simplest monosaccharides
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Most monosaccharides are chiral (chiral) (non-chiral)
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Two ways to represent the D- and L- stereoisomers of glyceraldehyde
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Aldoses with 3 or more carbons and ketoses with 4 or more carbons contain chiral centers 2 n stereoisomeric forms n = number of asymmetric centers Ketoses have one fewer asymmetric center than aldoses with the same number of carbons D- and L- refer to the absolute configuration of the asymmetric carbon farthest from the aldehyde- or keto- group
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Aldotriose/Aldotetrose
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Aldopentoses
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Aldohexoses
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Ketotriose/Ketotetrose
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Ketopentoses/Ketohexoses
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Stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other are enantiomers
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Pairs of isomers that have opposite configurations at one or more chiral centers but are NOT mirror images are diastereomers
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Two sugars that differ in configuration at only one chiral center are epimers
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Formation of hemiacetals and hemiketals
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Cyclization of D-glucose
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Pyran and Furan
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Cyclization of D-glucose
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This note was uploaded on 05/10/2008 for the course BIOCH 301 taught by Professor Smith during the Spring '08 term at Clemson.

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Lecture_1A_Carbohydrates_S2008 - Four major classes of...

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