Chapter 01 Notes - Picturing Distributions with Graphs - STAT 1450 LECTURE NOTES CHAPTER 1 PICTURING DISTRIBUTIONS WITH GRAPHS Guided Notes associated

Chapter 01 Notes - Picturing Distributions with Graphs -...

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S TAT 1450 L ECTURE N OTES – C HAPTER 1 P ICTURING D ISTRIBUTIONS WITH G RAPHS Guided Notes associated with the Lecture Videos for Sections 1.1 & 1.2 Statistics is about thinking critically. By becoming statistically literate, you will learn common statistical terms and their uses. Sound statistical literacy, thinking, and reasoning will help you to challenge and resolve the veracity of certain claims. In this course you will learn that doing statistics is a process of questioning whether the methods we use are appropriate (using graphical displays and checking conditions, doing any necessary calculations (mechanics), and communicating your results in context). What is the discipline of statistics? The authors define it as “the science of data.” I’d also like to include “the science of collecting, organizing, analyzing & interpreting data.” Data are numbers with a context, and we must understand this context. In this chapter we’ll look at a few practical situations. Can we use graphs of data to estimate: The typical cost of a birthday present? The type of shoe that is most common in someone’s closet? (or in our classroom) 1.1 Variables In a study, we collect information—data—from individuals. Individuals can be people, animals, plants, or any other objects of interest. A variable is a characteristic that differs among individuals in a population or in a sample. When planning a statistical study or exploring data provided from someone else’s work, ask the following questions: 1.Who?What individualsdo the data describe? 2.What?How many variablesdo the data contain? What are the exact definitions of these variables?In what unit of measurementis each variable recorded? 3.Where?Does the location seem consistent with the findings? 4.When?Could the results have been impacted by a historic event?? 5.Why? What purposedo the data have? Chapter 1, page 1
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A quantitative variable is something that can be counter or measured for each individual and thenadded, subtracted, averaged, etc. across individuals in the population.A few examples: Cost of a friend’s birthday present # of people who expressed interest in attending your friend’s birthday party A categorical variable places an individual into one of several groups or categories. Countsor proportionsof individuals are important here.A few examples: Stores from which the birthday presents were purchasedThe method by which people expressed interest in attending your friend’s birthday partyHow do you know if a variable is quantitative or categorical?Ask yourself:What is being recorded about those nindividuals/units?Is that a number → quantitative or a statement→ categorical (Note: Be careful of categorical variables that might have “numerical codes”)1.2 Categorical Variables: Pie Charts and Bar GraphsWhen we conduct exploratory data analysis:
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  • Summer '12
  • Peter
  • Statistics, Bar chart, Histogram, Categorical distribution, red upside­down triangle

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