8 Dr_Gangur_Chemicals_2014

8 Dr_Gangur_Chemicals_2014 - Chemical hazards in food...

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Chemical hazards in food Chemical hazards in food including food allergens and including food allergens and gluten gluten Venu Gangur , DVM, MVSc, PhD Associate Professor, Food Allergy & Immunology Lab, Michigan State University [email protected] FSC 342 Guest Lecture, Nov 7, 2014, 1:50-2:40 p.m., 119 Olds Hall
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Introduction Chemicals in food All chemicals are toxic at specific doses Potentially toxic chemicals in foods Two major types Additives (for taste, appearance, etc.) Natural components of food Regulatory agencies responsible FDA, USDA Decide which chemicals are permitted and their levels E.g., Food additives, color additives, GRAS = generally recognized as safe, substances EPA: pesticides
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Federal laws Federal Food, Drug, & Cosmetic Act (1938) (FFDCA) A food is considered adulterated if it: Bears or contains a poisonous or deleterious substance that may render it injurious to health Bears or contains any ADDED poisonous or deleterious substance that may render it injurious to health Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act 2004 (FALCPA) A new law that amends FFDCA to include food allergens and gluten
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Chemical contaminants in food 1. Food allergens (E.g., peanut, tree nuts, etc) Food allergen control in industry Principles Food Allergen Recalls examples 2. Gluten (cereals: wheat, rye, barley) 3. Melamine (milk contamination) 4. Environmental organic chemicals (Dioxins, PBB ) PBB contamination, Michigan events during 1973-74 5. Natural toxins innate in certain foods (E.g., Agglutinins) 6. Toxins produced during cooking/processing (Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons=PAH); Acrylamide 7. Food additives (E.g., Sulfites, MSG) 8. Minerals (E.g., Arsenic, Selenium) 9. Heavy metals (E.g., Lead, Mercury) 10. Pesticides (DDT)
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Food Allergies: What are they? Immune systems mediated diseases Food Allergens: Innocuous , non-toxic, food proteins are targeted by the immune system in the form of an immediate hypersensitivity response Consequence: Diarrhea, vomiting, skin rashes, colic, asthma, drop in blood pressure (*shock*) and occasionally death Potentially lethal among sensitized people Milligram quantities can potentially kill (super small amounts) 1. Food Allergens
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Food allergy is potentially fatal: peanut, tree nuts and sesame are major causes Systemic Anaphylaxis ~50,000 emergency room visits/year in USA ~150-200 deaths/year in USA FEAR OF DEATH (RAPID)
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Who gets them and why? Who? Children: 6-8 % Adults: ~4% Both males and females Peanut and nut allergies tend to persist for life in most cases Milk and egg allergies are usually outgrown Why? Genetics plus environmental causes Incompletely understood; believed to be: “Genetically programmed but environmentally triggered disease”
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Allergenic foods and food allergens: what are they?
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