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Unformatted text preview: 2/28/16 AAer this lecture you should be able: ANTH 203: Lecture Eight Kin and non-­‐kin [email protected] Outline •  Corporate groups •  Kinship based corporate groups –  Marriage –  Residence –  Descent –  Kinship terminologies •  Non-­‐kinship-­‐based corporate groups –  You’re responsible for this material on your own •  Recognise and describe [email protected] and [email protected] marriage rules •  Discuss the different types of post-­‐marital residence rules •  [email protected] and describe the four main types of household [email protected] •  Talk about the different types of descent groups •  List the six types of kinship terminology, and provide basic details about the Eskimo and Iroquois systems Corporate groups •  [email protected] are “groups made up of groups” –  Corporate groups are “[email protected]@es of humans that act and to an extent think as a single “body” (corps)” •  The text [email protected]fies 9 primary [email protected] that corporate groups serve –  Means of reckoning membership in corporate groups fall into two categories •  Kin based and non-­‐kin based 1 2/28/16 Kinship based corporate groups •  These groups roughly correspond with the concept of “family” –  “Family” is a [email protected] term •  The type of blood [email protected] people recognise as belonging to (or not) to a family group varies cross-­‐culturally •  Kinship systems are products of three primary, interconnected principles Marriage •  An interpersonal relationship •  Connects social groups into cooperative alliances •  Groups have mutual welfare concerns –  Marriage, residence, and descent Marriage rules and practices •  •  •  •  •  All societies restrict choice of marriage partners Restrictions include negative and positive rules Negative rules specify what people must not do Positive rules specify what people must do Positive rules are more restrictive Negative marriage rules •  Incest taboo –  Prohibits sex between individuals who share a specific degree of relatedness –  Range of prohibited relatives varies crossculturally •  The exogamy rule –  Prohibits marriage between group members –  Requires that social groups create and maintain co-operative ties (leads to largescale social organization) 2 2/28/16 Positive marriage rules •  Dictate who one must marry rather than who one must not marry –  Endogamy •  Individuals have to marry within a specified social group –  Substitution marriage –  Cross cousin marriage –  Parallel cousin marriage Substitution marriage •  Rules applied for remarrying widows –  maintain relationships between spousal exchanging groups •  The levirate –  widow marries brother of deceased husband •  The sororate –  widow marries sister of deceased wife •  Cross generational marriage –  man inherits wives from deceased senior male of kin group (rights to wife’s production but not sex Cross cousin marriage •  Most common positive marriage rule •  Preferred partners are cross first cousins (same grandparent) •  The offspring of my parents’ cross sex siblings Cross cousin marriage Ego Patrilateral cross cousins Matrilateral cross cousins 3 2/28/16 Descent and cross cousin marriage •  Unilineal descent (either matri- or patri-) is the most common form of kinship group organization •  Unilineal descent + exogamy rule = cross cousins cannot belong to the same group •  Patrilineal descent •  Matrilineal descent Cross cousin marriage Ego Patrilateral cross cousins Matrilateral cross cousins Parallel cousin marriage •  •  •  •  •  Hypothetical patriline Hypothetical matriline Parallel cousin marriage Children of the parents’ same sex siblings Patrilateral cross cousin is favoured Parallel cousin marriage and patrilineal descent Spouses come from the same kinship groups All close relatives come from the same natal group Ego Patrilateral parallel cousins Matrilateral parallel cousins 4 2/28/16 Parallel cousin marriage, Islam, and pastoralism •  Found in North Africa, central Asia, and the Middle East – roughly overlaps with the distribution of Islam and pastoral economies •  An example of required self-sufficiency •  Keeps property within the kin group •  Reduces likelihood that descent groups will fission Parallel cousin marriage, Islam, and pastoralism Ego Patrilateral parallel cousins Patriline Residence or households •  [email protected] [email protected] •  People who share a dwelling and cooperate to perform daily tasks of life •  [email protected] [email protected] impact on social behaviour •  Basic economic units Basic aspects of family [email protected] •  Members feel [email protected] [email protected] with each other •  Members cooperate and support one another •  There is considerable cross-­‐cultural [email protected] in who members consider to belong to the family –  Industrial households are main units of [email protected], non-­‐industrial households are main units of co[email protected] and [email protected] 5 2/28/16 Post marital residence rules •  Where a couple decides to live following their marriage •  Key determinants of household [email protected] •  The rules do not necessarily follow paderns of descent •  Neolocal, patrilocal (viri-­‐), matrilocal (uxori-­‐), avunculocal Household [email protected] I •  Matrifocal households -­‐ Key [email protected] is between mother-­‐child –  No stable male consort –  Tendency for female head to retain one of her daughters, even aAer the daughter has children of her own •  Nuclear household -­‐ an adult couple and their sub-­‐adult offspring –  Two key [email protected]: marriage bond, and parent-­‐child –  Dominant household type in modern industrial [email protected] for the last 200 years Principles of household [email protected] •  Individuals can be recruited into households according to a variety of social [email protected] •  Four main types of household [email protected] –  matrifocal –  nuclear –  compound –  extended Household [email protected] II •  Compound households -­‐ created by [email protected] simultaneous marriages of a household head, who brings two or more spouses into a [email protected] [email protected] –  Polyandrous households -­‐ an adult female, two or more simultaneous husbands, and the woman’s sub-­‐adult offspring •  Rare (Northern India, Tibet, Sri Lanka) •  Never found in [email protected] •  [email protected] of an estate in areas where arable land is scarce and highly valued 6 2/28/16 Household [email protected] III •  Compound households -­‐ created by [email protected] simultaneous marriages of a household head, who brings two or more spouses into a [email protected] [email protected] –  Polygynous household -­‐ an adult male head, two or more simultaneous wives and their sub-­‐adult offspring •  Common •  Type of polygynous [email protected] depends on: –  –  –  –  Extended households •  Consanguineal kin including at least three [email protected] •  The organizing principle “extends,” or [email protected], some sort of consanguineal [email protected] •  Favored offspring are retained •  Patrilocally-­‐extended, matrilocally-­‐extended, and avunculocally extended household whether women may own property the nature of inheritance [email protected] the economic value of female labor the possibility for women to divorce Descent •  Third principal of kinship –  [email protected] across [email protected] •  People related by way of a shared “apical ancestor” •  Descent groups –  Unilineal •  Patrilineal, Matrilineal Descent groups •  Durable rights •  [email protected] advantages: –  they endure –  fixed boundaries •  Membership ascribed and retained •  A legal principle –  [email protected] 7 2/28/16 Unilineal descent •  Number of lineal kin doubles each [email protected] •  Descent restricted to a single line •  Patrilineal descent –  Individuals belong to their father’s group –  Daughters generally leave to live with their husbands’ group [email protected] descent groups •  •  •  •  Membership through lineal kin of either sex Individual choice Land shortage Agamous marriage (no marriage rules) •  Matrilineal descent –  Individuals belong to their mother’s group –  Sons generally leave to live with their wives’ group Types of kin classifi[email protected] •  Six main types have been discovered •  Each type named aAer the first culture anthropologists observed the classifi[email protected] system in •  Hawaiian, Eskimo, Sudanese, Crow, Omaha, and Iroquois Iroquois vs. Eskimo •  Iroquois – found in more cultures than any other system of classifi[email protected] •  Eskimo – the type of classifi[email protected] found among [email protected] English speakers 8 2/28/16 Iroquois terms •  F and FB are “father”, MB is “uncle” •  M and MZ are “mother”, FZ is “aunt” •  Children of FB and MZ (parallel cousins) are “brothers” and “sisters” •  Children of FZ and MB (cross cousins) are “cousins” Iroquois terms Ego “Aunt” “Father” “Mother” “Uncle” “Cousin” “Sibling” Why are Iroquois terms so common? •  Accommodate both bilateral kinship systems and unilineal descent •  Recognize both sides •  Unilineal descent and cross cousins as outsiders Eskimo terms •  Father and uncles (“uncles”) •  Mother and aunts •  Sister, brother, cousins 9 2/28/16 Eskimo terms and the nuclear family •  Lineals are [email protected] from collaterals in every [email protected] senior to the speaker •  Siblings are [email protected] from all other collaterals •  Kin terms emphasize the nuclear family •  Subsistence strategies favor the elementary family 10 ...
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