Chapter_10_-_Evaporation - Chapter 10 Evaporation...

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Chapter 10 Evaporation Instructor: Dr. Rami Jumah Department of Chemical Engineering Jordan University of Science and Technology
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JUST Department of Chemical Engineering ChE 362 Unit Operations Chapter 1- 2 Evaporation Heat is added to a solution to vaporize the solvent, which is usually water. Case of heat transfer to a boiling liquid. Vapor from a boiling liquid solution is removed and a more concentrated solution remains. Refers to the removal of water from an aqueous solution. Examples: - Concentration of fruit juice, milk or caustic soda - Production of high quality water from river/sea Feed (volatile solvent & non-volatile solute) Solvent vapor Concentrated solution
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JUST Department of Chemical Engineering ChE 362 Unit Operations Chapter 10- 3 Standardization to adjust the content of fat in milk Heating to sterilize Falling-film evaporator Production of Milk Powder Spray dryer to get milk powder
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JUST Department of Chemical Engineering ChE 362 Unit Operations Chapter 1- 4 Processing Factors (1)Concentration - Dilute feed: viscosity  , heat transfer coefficient, h also T BPsoln. ≈ T BPwater - Concentrated solution:  , and h & T BPsoln. → (boiling point rise, BPR) (2) Solubility - Concentration , solubility , crystal formed. - Solubility with temperature (3) Temperature - Heat sensitive material degrade at higher temperature & prolonged heating. - Examples: foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals (4) Scale deposition - Product decomposition & solubility decrease → deposition of solid materials on the heating surfaces : U → cleaning required
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JUST Department of Chemical Engineering ChE 362 Unit Operations Chapter 1- 5 (5) Foaming/frothing - Caustic solutions, food solutions, fatty acid solutions form foam/froth during boiling. - Accompanies the vapor coming out of the evaporator and entrainment losses occur. (6) Pressure and Temperature - Pressure , boiling point . - Concentration , boiling point   Boiling Point Rise (BPR) - Heat-sensitive material operate under vacuum T solution . (7) Material of construction Minimize corrosion. steam solution q A A ? U T T 
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JUST Department of Chemical Engineering ChE 362 Unit Operations Chapter 1- 6 Types of Evaporation Equipment Horizontal tube type Vertical tube type Long tube vertical type Forced-circulation type Open kettle or pan Open-pan solar evaporator Falling-film-type evaporator Agitated-film evaporator
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JUST Department of Chemical Engineering ChE 362 Unit Operations Chapter 1- 7 Effect of Processing Variables on Evaporator Operation (1) Feed Temperature (T F ): - T F < T BP : some of latent heat of steam will be used to heat up the cold feed, only the rest of the latent heat of steam will be used to vaporize the feed.
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